San Giovanni in Laterano, Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi

When Pope Innocent III convened the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 he instructed bishops to inform members of their chapters to “send good men to the council.”    After having been summoned to the Fourth Lateran Council, cathedral chapters were not shy about asserting their new rights to participate in councils. They quickly claimed the right to be represented by procurators and through these representatives to be voting members of local synods.