Hammurabi, Code of the most complete and perfect extant collection of Babylonian laws, developed during the reign of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) of the 1st dynasty of Babylon. It consists of his legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign and inscribed on a diorite stela
set up in Babylon's temple of Marduk, the national god of Babylonia. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce), family law (marriage and  divorce), as well as criminal law (assault, theft) and civil law (slavery, debt). Penalties varied according to the status of the offenders and the circumstances of the offenses.

The background of the code is a body of Sumerian law under which
civilized communities had lived for many centuries. The existing text
is in the Akkadian (Semitic) language; but, even though no Sumerian
version is known to survive, the code was meant to be applied to a
wider realm than any single country and to integrate Semitic and
Sumerian traditions and peoples. Moreover, despite a few primitive
survivals relating to family solidarity, district responsibility, trial by
ordeal, and the lex talionis (i.e., an eye for an eye, a tooth for a
tooth), the code was advanced far beyond tribal custom and
recognized no blood feud, private retribution, or marriage by

The principal (and only considerable) source of the Code of
Hammurabi is the stela discovered at Susa in 1901 by the French
Orientalist Jean-Vincent Scheil and now preserved in the Louvre.