Trial by Jury
Twelfth Century: Jury for property cases (Writs)
Fourth Lateran Council, 1215
Jury as a new mode of proof
Writ of 1219 to the Justices of the Eyre
At first a jury trial was voluntary --- "put himself on the
The transition from an indicting jury to a deciding jury was a very slow one, and there was a fairly extended period in which judges were not bound by a jury's verdict. The idea of an impartial jury only took root in the fifteenth century.