Councils and Synods

From the very early church, Christian communities gathered together to discuss problems. 

Councils in the Early Church (Short History)

By mid-second century this practice had been  institutionalized.    These meetings were called councils or synods. There is not much information about synods before the fourth century.   

The Spread of Christianity to 400 AD

Canon  means rule in Greek.  Has no meaning in Roman and Greek Law

Elvira: The Earliest Canon

Early Church Councils

Further Bibliography of Sources

Most Comprehensive Early Modern Edition of Conciliar Canons and Acta:  The most complete collection of conciliar canons is: Johannes Dominicus Mansi (1692-1769), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio : in qua,prćter ea quć Phil. Labbeus et Gabr. Cossartius S.J. et novissime Nicolaus Coleti in lucem edidere, ea omnia insuper suis in locis optime disposita exhibentur quć Johannes Dominicus Mansi ... evulgavit ... 56 Volumes. Florentić : Expensis Antonii Zatta Veneti, 1759-[1927].

Early Church Councils and SourcesCuthbert Hamilton Turner (ed.) Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monumenta Iuris Antiquissima Canonum et Conciliorum Graecorum interpretationes Latinae. Edidit Cuthbert Hamilton Turner. 2 volumes. Oxford 1899-1939. Reprint: Hildesheim 2011.

An entirely arbitrary bibliography of modern editions that concentrates on the early Middle Ages:

Councils, Czech. Synody a statuta olomoucké diecéze období středověku, ed. Pavel Krafl, Práce Historického ústavu AV ČR; Opera Instituti hisorici Pragae, Řada/Series B, Editiones, Svazek, 2. Praha: Historického ústavu AV ČR, 2003 (Browsers do not read Czech accents correctly).

Councils, English. Councils and Synods with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2: A.D. 1205-1313, Part 1: 1205-1265. Edited by F.M Powicke and Christopher R. Cheney. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964. 1998

Councils, AfricanConcilia Africae a. 345-a. 525.  Edited Charles Munier.  Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, 149. Turnholt: Brepols, 1974

Councils, French. Concilia Galliae, A. 314 - A. 506. Edited Charles Munier. Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, 148. Turnholt: Brepols, 1963. Concilia Galliae, A. 511 - A. 695 Edited Charles de Clercq. Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, 148 A. Turnholt: Brepols, 1963.

Councils, German and FrenchKonzilien der karolingischen Teilreiche 843-859. Ed. Wilfried Hartmann. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Concilia 3. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1984.

Councils, German  and French. Konzilien der karolingischen Teilreiche 860-874. Ed. Wilfried Hartmann. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Concilia 4. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1998.

Councils, German  and French. Konzilien der karolingischen Teilreiche 875-911. Ed. Wilfried Hartmann et al. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Concilia 5. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2012.

Councils, Spanish. Synodicon Hispanum, ed. Antonio García y García et al.  7 Volumes. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1981-1997.

Instructions for Holding CouncilsDie Konzilsordines des Früh- und Hochmittelalters. Edited by Herbert Schneider. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Ordines de celebrando concilio. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1996.