Johannes Sadler 1550-1600 copied after Theodor de Bry 1528-1598

Ken Pennington, "Bartolomé de Las Casas and the Tradition of Medieval Law," Church History 39 (1970) 149-61, revised and published in Popes, Canonists, and Texts 1150-1550 (Collected Studies Series 412; Aldershot: Variorum, 1993) 

Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), Decretales of Gregory IX, 3.34.8 Quod super hiis

Those who take a vow for the defense of the Holy Land may pay others to take their place and thus redeem their vows or if they have legitimate reasons may have their departure postponed.


Pope Innocent IV, Commentary on Quod super hiis (ca. 1245) (ed. 1570 fol. 429-430) s.v. compensato:
"Sed numquid est licitum invadere terram quam infideles possident? .  .  . iurisdictiones licite sine peccato possunt esse apud infideles; haec enim non tantum pro fideli sed pro omni rationabili creatura facta sunt." Whether it is licit to invade the land that the non-Christians occupy?  Non-Christians may possess lands without sin; this is true not only for Christians but for all rational creaures.