Rights of the Poor

Gratian, Decretum, D.8 d.a.c.1: "Differt etiam ius naturae a consuetudine et constitutione. Nam iure naturae sunt omnia communia omnibus, quod non solum inter eos servatum creditur, de quibus legitur: `Multitudinis autem credentium erat cor unum et anima una' [Acts 4:32], verum etiam ex precedenti tempore a philosophis traditum invenitur. Vnde apud Platonem illa civitas iustissime ordinata traditur in qua quisque proprios nescit affectus. Iure vero consuetudinis vel constitutionis hoc meum est, illud vero alterius." [The law of nature differs from custom and from constitution.  By natural law all things are held in common, a practice found not only among those spoken of in the Acts of the Apostles, "The multitude of believers were of one heart and mind," but in earlier times as we have learned from the philosophers.  Plato says that the most just city is one in which no one considers anything his own.  In contrast by customary law and constitutions one thing is called mine and another thing yours]

Gratian, Decretum C.12 q.1 c.2  Saint Clement from Pseudo-Isidore: "Communis enim usus omnium .  .  . in omnibus autem sunt sine dubio et coniuges (The common use of all .  .  .  . in all things moreover is undoubtedly even wifes)"

Gratian, Decretum, D.47 c.8 (Rufinus of Aquileia): "Proprium nemo dicat quod est commune, quod plusquam sufficeret sumptum etiam violenter sumptum est." [No one may call his own what is common to all.  Whatever is taken more than what is sufficient is violently taken]

Johannes Teutonicus, Commentary on Gratian's Decretum, D.47 c.8 v. commune: "idest communicandum tempore necessitatis . . . et lex dicit quod cibaria tempore necessitatis sunt omnibus communicanda." [That is things are in common in time of necessity.  The law says that food in times of necessity is common to all]

Johannes Teutonicus to D.47 c.8 v. etiam violenter: "Dicitur hic quod per violentiam dicitur auferre qui ultra necessaria sibi retinet . . . verum est si hoc fiat tempore necessitatis nam alias potest quis sibi ultra necessaria retinere." [It is said here that someone who takes more than necessary takes that violently.  That is true is it is taken in time of necessity; otherwise someone may take more than necessary]

Discussion of the rights of the poor

Maxim:  Necessitas legem non habet [Necessity knows no law]   Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)