Jurisprudence of Individual Rights

Property

Digest of Justinian, 1.8.2.1 (Marcian): "Quaedam naturali iure communia sunt omnium, quaedam universitatis, quaedam nullius, pleraque singulorum, quae variis ex causis cuique adquiruntur. Et quidem naturali iure omnium communia sunt illa: aer, aqua, profluens, et mare, et per hoc litora maris (Also Instit. 2.1.1)." [Some things are common to all men by ius naturale, some things belong to a community, some things belong to no one.  Many things belong to individuals who have acquired them for various reasons.  And indeed by ius naturale these things are common to all men: air, flowing water, the sea, and the shores of the sea.]

Gratian, Decretum D.1 c.7

Quid sit ius naturale. [Isidor. eod. c. 4.]

Ius naturale est commune omnium nationum, eo quod ubique instinctu nature, non constitutione aliqua habetur, ut viri et femine conjunctio, liberorum successio et educatio, communis omnium possessio et omnium una libertas, acquisitio eorum, quae celo, terra marique capiuntur; item deposite rei vel commendate pecuniae restitutio, violentie per vim repulsio. 1. Nam hoc, aut si quid huic simile est, nunquam injustum, sed naturale equumque habetur.

Huguccio (ca. 1190) to D.1 c.7 v. communis omnium possessio:  De iure naturali aliquid est meum et aliquid est tuum, set de permissione, non de precepto, quia ius divinum numquam precipit omnia esse communia vel aliqua esse propria, set  permittit omnia esse communia vel aliqua esse propria, et ita de iure naturali aliquid est commune et aliquid est proprium.  "By natural law somethings are mine and other things are yours.  But this is by permission, not by command, because divine law never commanded that all things are in common or something is owned by someone.  Rather divine law permits all things to be in common and something to be owned." 

Odofredus (1250 A.D.) to Justinian's Code 7.37.3 (Bene a Zenone) (Lyon: 1480), vol. 1, unfol.: Textus:  "cum omnia principis.  Hic voluit colligere dominus Martinus quod imperator sit dominus omnium rerum singularium.  Item pro sua opinione inducit legem que dicit quod imperator potest dare predia nostra militibus ob stipendia .  .  . Set dicimus contra quia cum quis habeat rei vendicationem pro sua re.   .  .  .  Ergo imperator non habet rei vindicationem."  Here dominus Martinus wished to state that the emperor is the lord of all property.  He cited a law that asserted that the emperor can give property to the soldiers in the army.  .   .  . But we say otherwise, because anyone has the right to vindicate his property in court .  .  . the emperor cannot vindicate my property in court .  .  . "

Panormitanus, to D.1 c.7, Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana, 160, fol. 261r: 

Nota ibi, communis omnium possessio et omnium una libertas, quod de iure naturali omnia sunt communia, et idem probatur viii. dist. Quo iure (D.8 c.1), licet glosa hic exponat, que sint communia, id est communicanda necessitatis tempore. Illa tamen est impropria expositio, ut plene dixi post glosam in c. ii. supra ead. distNam ius naturale primevum non distinxit possessiones, unde possunt dici omnia communia ex quo non statuit contrarium.  Note there, "the common possession of all things and the freedom of all persons," that all things are in common according to the precepts of natural law, that this is proven in Gratian's 8th distinction, chapter one, although the gloss explains all "things are in common" as being in times of necessity.  This explanation is, however, wrong.  Primeval ius naturale did not distinguish between personal possessions; therefore all things are in common since ius naturale did not decree the contrary.

De quo dic ut latius dixi in dicto capitolo ii. Et ex hoc et ex eo subditur de libertate.

Nota quod ius naturale recepit mutationes saltem per viam additionis. Nam per constitutiones humanas bona que erant de iure naturali communia appropriantur et servitus est inducta. Note that ius naturale receives changes through additions.  For example human constitutions have appropriated things that were common.  Slavery was introduced.

Panormitanus, to D.1 c.1, Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana, 160, fol. 254vb:   Intellige tamen predicta prout sentit beatus Thomas in prima secunde q. XCIIII articulo V, ubi in fine dicit quod aliquid dicitur esse de iure naturali dupliciter. Uno modo, quia ad hoc natura inclinat, sicut non esse alteri iniuriam faciendam. Alio modo, quia natura non inducit contrarium, sicut possemus dicere quod hominem esse nudum de iure naturali quia natura non dedit ei vestimentum sed ars adinvenit. Et hoc modo dicit quod communis omnium possessio et omnium una libertas dicitur esse de iure naturali, quia scilicet distinctio possessionum et servitus non sunt inducta a natura, sed per hominum rationem ad utilitatem humane vite, que verba diligenter nota.  Understand nevertheless ius naturale as Saint Thomas explains in his Summa theologiae, where he says that ius naturale can be understood in two ways.  In one way what nature inclines us to, as not injuring another.  In another way what nature does not object to, as we may say that men were naked according to natural law because nature did not give men clothing, but did give men the skill to make clothing.  In in way he says that "the common possession of all things and the freedom of all persons," are said to be established by natural law, because  nature did not establish ownership and slavery but are introduced by the reason of men and by the utilitas of human life.