Abu Bakr

573-634, First caliph, father-in-law and successor
of Mohammad.   He was probably the
Prophet's first convert. During his critical
two-year caliphate (632-34), Islam began the
phenomenal growth that was to make it a world

MosaicsDomeRock.JPG (1581645 bytes)

Mosaics from Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem








In 10 A.H. (632 A.D.) the Christians of Najran refused to accept Islam, the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.) had given them security of life, property and religion in lieu of payment of a fixed annual subsidy under a documentary covenant wherein the above stated conditions were written. After the demise of the Prophet of (S.A.W.), military action started against the rebels, the Christians of Najran understood the danger of being punished, so they sent a deputation the Caliph of the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.), Abu Bakr (R.A.A.) and asked for the reaffirmation of the covenant reached during the days of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.).  The Caliph acceded to their desire and executed the following document.

This is a covenant from the Caliph of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). Abu Bakr (R.A.A.) to the Christian inhabitants of Najran.  Full protection is accorded from Allah and His Prophet  (S.A.W.) to the Christian inhabitants of Najran regarding their life, land, nationhood, property and wealth, even to those who are residing as their dependants in the vicinity villages of Najran and to those living in Najran and outside the country, their priests, monks, churches, and everything whether great and small. They will neither be subject to military service nor will be treated harshly, nor their priests will be forced to relinquish their asceticism. This covenant is the reaffirmation and ratification of the original document executed by the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.) with the people  of Najran. Whatever is contained in the above document, Allah and His Messenger (S.A.W.) stand witness to it. It is incumbent upon the Christian inhabitants of Najran to fulfill their responsibilities with sincerity and truth.  (Kitabul-Kharaj, Abu Yusuf ).

Letters of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq, translated by Hafiz Muhammad Adil (Karachi: International Islamic Publishers, 1984) 31-32

This letter is evidence of the toleration among Moslem's for other religions and religious beliefs.