Common Law and Civil Law

General Differences between the Common Law and Civil Law Tradition (The Ius commune)

Case Law, Court decisions, and stare decisis (precedent)


Role of Jurists

Vocabulary and Definitions of Law

Law is what it is:  but it formed by History and Language

Vocabulary of Law: Ius (iuris), Lex (legis), Droit, Derecho, Diritto, Recht, Prawo, Ustawa

Custom (Consuetudo), written and unwritten
Legislation: statutes, constitutions, plebiscites, laws, ordinances

Transcendental legal systems: Ius gentium, ius naturale, religious law, moral and ethical norms

Definitions of Law:   What's yours?

Definitions of Law 1     Definitions of Law 2     Definitions of Law (Foreign)


Positive law (ius positivum), John Austin (legal positivism)

Legal History:  Jurists and Society