Bulgarus, De arbitris <et iudicibus>

Vat. lat. 8782, fol. 94v-95r

Citations in Red indicate marginal glosses in Vat. lat. 8782

Karissimo amico et domino A. dei gratia sancte Romane ecclesie cancellario B. in Christo salutem et eorum que iuris sunt arrchana participem. Vestre serenitatis apices ad nos denique a uobis missos seruili affectione suscepimus. Proinde materiam ministratam licet nimis arduam feliciter domino fauente persequimur. To my friend and lord A (Haimeric 1123-1141A.D.), chancellor by the grace of God of the Roman church, and those participants in the secrets of the law, greetings.  We have received with humble affection the letters that you sent to me.  Thus we will pursue the difficult subject happily, the Lord willing.
Arbitrum itaque eum dicimus cui proprio consensu compromittentes actor et reus partes committunt.

Iudex uero est qui iurisdictioni preest1 ut pretor, preses, prefectus urbis et qui ab his delegatus est quibus hec communia sunt.

Vterque propositis sacrosanctis euangeliis circa se causam examinat.2

1 Dig. 3.1.12   2 Cod. 1.4.27.3

We call an arbiter a person to whom the plaintiff (actor) and defendant (reus) consent.

A judge is he who has jurisdiction as a praetor, protector, prefect of the city, and who has been delegated to those things that are shared.

The judge  examines a case carefully after both parties have sworn oaths on the Gospels. 

Iusiurandum de calumpnia actoris et rei fieri properat, uidelicet et ne per calumpniam intendant neue calumpniose contradicant. Ad dirimendas lites et terminandas causas sine fraude et sorde laborat, nunc absoluendo, nunc condempnando. Condempnato ex regulari iure quadrimestre tempus indulget. Nam pro qualitate cause et obsequio siue contumacia persone nonnumquam tempus prorogat nonnumquam coartat. The plaintiff and the defendant ought to swear the oath of calumny  that they do not intend calumny and will not respond calumniously.  He should repress disputes and decide cases without fraud and meanness by either absolving or condemning.   A person against whom a sentence is rendered is given three months <to comply with the judgment>.  This time is never extended or shortened  because of the importance of the case, obedience or contumacy of the persons.
Propria singulorum hec sunt.

Arbitrium priuati eligunt.

Iudicem dat potestas publica aut princeps et qui sub eo militant. In hunc compromittur pena inuicem ut per quem factum erit, quominus sententie sit paritum, ille exigat penam uel deponunt apud eum res de quibus est controuersia, ut uictori prestentur aut res alie loco pignoris apud eum collocantur ut sententie satisfiat aut per stipulationem hinc inde promittitur sententie stari.

The characteristics of each office is:

Private persons elect arbitration.

Public authority  and the prince  and those who work under him create a judge.  The parties agree upon the arbiter who will render a judgment, as far as a sentence is produced, and he may demand the penalty and deposit with him the property over which the dispute arose, that it may be given to the victor or other property in place of a deposit is given to the arbiter in order that his judgment may be carried out or through a "stipulatio" by both parties that they will respect his judgment.

Verum iudex neque in se compromitti patitur nec pignorari uel deponi apud se compellit, set nec sententie stari promitti set tantum iudicio sisti. Huius sententia non parit actionem uel exceptionem regulariter. Illius utrumque huius decretum non infamat. Illius interdum infamiam irrogat. Amplius arbiter cum religione eligi non debet nec iurare.1 Set si iurauerit et contra ius sententiam dixerit Deo contra ius sententiam dixerit Deo rationem daturus est. Si per imprudentiam hoc partibus non nocebit.

1 Authen. 6.10.11 (= Nov. 82)

On the other hand a judge does not permit himself to be selected by the parties and he may not compel deposits to be given to him.  He may also not demand that the parties respect his judgment, but only that they appear in court.  The arbiter's decision does not regularly produce another action or exception.   The decree of the judge and  the arbiter does not inflict infamy.  A judge's decree may now and then inflict infamy.  Moreover an arbiter ought not be elected through a solemn oath and ought not swear an oath.  But if he would swear and render a judgment against "ius", leave him to God.  If he renders a judgment through ignorance, he shall not injury the parties.
Iudex iurat cum ueritate et legum obseruatione se iudicaturum in singulis sicut fuerit iustum uisum.1 Arbiter non interponit se cause criminali et liberali. Iudex de utraque. Huius sententia minus appellatione suspenditur. Illius decretum iusta prouocatione rescinditur. Arbitri etsi sit sententia iniqua stabitur. Iudicis si sit iniqua, appellatione facta mutatur. Hec de arbitro et iudice deque eorum communione et differentia deue eorum offitiis succinte dicta sufficiant.

1 Cod. 3.1.14

A judge swears that he will judge in each case according to the truth and adhering to the law, as it seems just.  An arbiter does not hear criminal case or cases in which the freedom is the issue.  The judge can hear both.  The sentence of the arbiter is less suspended by an appeal.  The judgment of the judge is nullified by a just appeal.  But an unjust sentence of an arbiter shall stand.  If the sentence of the judge is unjust it may be changed by an appeal.  These are the differences between an arbiter and a judge, their similarities and differences, and their duties are sufficiently outlined.
Aduocati sunt qui et patroni dicuntur, ingredientes iudicium utrique parti suum prestantes auxilium, quorum est offitium, causas perorare quousque uoluerint ne tamen ad turpe conpendium stipemque deformem hec arripiatur occasio, set laudis per eam argumenta querantur. Agere debent quod causa desiderat ab iniuria temperare, ratione, non probris obuiare.1 Alioquin labem pudoris contrahunt.2 Set nec de industria iurgium protrahere debent.3

1 Cod. 2.6.6.1, 5  2Cod. 2.11.15 and Cod. 5.62.17  3 Cod. 2.6.6.4

Advocates are also called patrons; they enter the courtroom to help both parties, and it is their duty to defend  them in such a way as to do nothing more than the success of the actions demands, and they shall not employ abuse and slander. They should seek praise for their arguments.  They should litigate so to temper injury, with reason, and avoiding insults. Otherwise they contract the stain of shame. They ought not delay the trial.
Preterea post litem contestatam religione iurisiurandi artandi sunt quod omni uirtute sua omnique ope quod iustum et uerum existimauerint, id suo litigatori inferre procurent, nichil quod sibi possibile est de industia relinquentes.  Siquidem tamen omiserint iudex sollertia sua supplebit quorum error litigatoribus non nocebit, si ex continenti idest triduo proximo contradixerint.  Therefore after the trial has been completed advocates must swear a solemn oath that they defended their party with all their skill and strength and spared no effort in the case.  If they did omit something the judge shall supply it and an error will not injury the parties if they correct it immediately, that is within three days.
Iudici sic credi debet ut qui ei non obtemperauerit iussus exhibere uel restituere quanti ea res est condempnetur. Pro ueritate res iudicata accipitur. Si tamen ex falso testimonio uel instrumento cuius fides in dubium reuocatur, tempore iudicii fuerit iudicatum, sententia retractatur si testimonium uel falsa carta probatur. The judge ought to be believed so that whoever does not obey his command should be condemned to pay the value of the judgment.  A court decision is accepted as truth.  If, however, if a judgment is made on false testimony or evidence the decision will be retracted if the testimony and forged evidence is proven.
Actor est qui persequitur aliquid principaliter dicens rem suam esse uel personam obligatam ad aliquid dandum uel faciendum. Set et reus si intentione aduersarii fundata excepit, opponat ut condempnationem effugiat, actor intelligtur. Agere enim is uidetur qui exceptione utitur.1

1 Dig. 44.1.1

An actor is he pursues something primarily  by saying that some property is his or that a person has obligations to him or that something ought to be given to him or done for him.  But if the reus takes exception to the argument of the actor, or proposes that he escape a condempnation, he becomes the actor.  A reus who makes an exception becomes the actor.
Reus est aduersus quem contenditur quia possidere uel debere dicatur. Ad probationem actor est si optinere <fol. 95r> uelit ut id quod intendit probet. Actore enim non probante qui conuenitur etsi nichil prestiterit optineat1 quia rei fauorabiliores sunt quam actores.2 Hiis equipollenter dicitur iura promptiora sunt ad absoluendum quam ad condempnandum. Cumque reus in exceptione actor est, ipsum quod excipit probare debet.

1 Cod. 2.1.4    2 Dig. 50.17.125

A reus is opposed to the actor because he is accused of possessing or owing something.   He becomes the actor if  he wishes to get that which he attempts to prove in his exception.  If the actor cannot prove his case, the reus triumphs even though he did not present any evidence because the law is more favorable to the reus than the actor.  All things being equal ius is more ready to absolve than to condemn.  When the reus makes an exception and becomes the actor, he is obligated to prove what he alleged.