Code of Canon Law (1983)


Can. 1 The canons of this Code concern only the Latin Church. Gratian D.1

Can. 2 For the most part the Code does not determine the rites to be observed in the celebration of liturgical actions. Accordingly, liturgical laws which have been in
effect hitherto retain their force, except those which may be contrary to the canons of the Code.

Can. 3 The canons of the Code do not abrogate, nor do they derogate from, agreements entered into by the Apostolic See with nations or other civil entities. For this
reason, these agreements continue in force as hitherto, notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this Code.

Can. 4 Acquired rights, and likewise privileges hitherto granted by the Apostolic See to either physical or juridical persons, which are still in use and have not been
revoked, remain intact, unless they are expressly revoked by the canons of this Code.

Can. 5 1 Universal or particular customs which have been in effect up to now but are contrary to the provisions of these canons and are reprobated in the canons of
this Code, are completely suppressed, and they may not be allowed to revive in the future. Other contrary customs are also to be considered suppressed, unless the Code
expressly provides otherwise, or unless they are centennial or immemorial: these latter may be tolerated if the Ordinary judges that, in the circumstances of place and
person, they cannot be removed. Gratian D.11 and 12

2 Customs apart from the law, whether universal or particular, which have been in effect hitherto, are retained.

Can. 6 1 When this Code comes into force, the following are abrogated:

1 the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917;

2 other laws, whether universal or particular, which are contrary to the provisions of this Code, unless it is otherwise expressly provided in respect of particular laws;

3 all penal laws enacted by the Apostolic See, whether universal or particular, unless they are resumed in this Code itself;

4 any other universal disciplinary laws concerning matters which are integrally reordered by this Code.

2 To the extent that the canons of this Code reproduce the former law, they are to be assessed in the light also of canonical tradition.


Can. 7 A law comes into being when it is promulgated.  Gratian, D.4 dictum post c.3

Can. 8  1 Universal ecclesiastical laws are promulgated by publication in the 'Acta Apostolicae Sedis', unless in particular cases another manner of promulgation has
been prescribed. They come into force only on the expiry of three months from the date appearing on the particular issue of the 'Acta', unless because of the nature of
the case they bind at once, or unless a shorter or a longer interval has been specifically and expressly prescribed m the law itself. Gratian, D.15

 2 Particular laws are promulgated in the manner determined by the legislator; they begin to oblige one month from the date of promulgation, unless a different period is
prescribed in the law itself.

Can. 9 Laws concern matters of the future, not those of the past, unless provision is made in them for the latter by name.

Can. 10 Only those laws are to be considered invalidating or incapacitating which expressly prescribe that an act is null or that a person is incapable.

Can. 11 Merely ecclesiastical laws bind those who were baptized in the catholic Church or received into it, and who have a sufficient use of reason and, unless the law
expressly provides otherwise, who have completed their seventh year of age.

Can. 12 1 Universal laws are binding everywhere on all those for whom they were enacted.  Gratian D.1

2 All those actually present in a particular territory in which certain universal laws are not in force, are exempt from those laws.

3 Without prejudice to the provisions of can. 13, laws enacted for a particular territory bind those for whom they were enacted and who have a domicile or
quasi-domicile in that territory and are actually residing in it.

Can. 13 1 Particular laws are not presumed to be personal, but rather territorial, unless the contrary is clear.

2 Peregrini are not bound:

1 by the particular laws of their own territory while they are absent from it, unless the transgression of those laws causes harm in their own territory, or unless the laws
are personal

2 by the laws of the territory in which they are present, except for those laws which take care of public order, or determine the formalities of legal acts, or concern
immovable property located in the territory.

 3 Vagi are bound by both the universal and the particular laws which are in force in the place in which they are present.

Can. 14 Laws, even invalidating and incapacitating ones, do not oblige when there is a doubt of law. When there is a doubt of fact, however Ordinaries can dispense
from them provided, if there is question of a reserved dispensation, it is one which the authority to whom it is reserved Is accustomed to grant.

Can. 15 1 Ignorance or error concerning invalidating or incapacitating laws does not prevent the effect of those laws, unless it is expressly provided otherwise.

2 Ignorance or error is not presumed about a law, a penalty, a fact concerning oneself, or a notorious fact concerning another. It is presumed about a fact concerning
another which is not notorious, until the contrary is proved.

Can. 16 1 Laws are authentically interpreted by the legislator and by that person to whom the legislator entrusts the power of authentic interpretation.

2 An authentic interpretation which is presented by way of a law has the same force as the law itself, and must be promulgated. If it simply declares the sense of
words which are certain in themselves, it has retroactive force. If it restricts or extends the law or resolves a doubt, it is not retroactive.

3 On the other hand, an interpretation by way of a court judgment or of an administrative act in a particular case, does not have the force of law. It binds only those
persons and affects only those matters for which it was given.

Can. 17 Ecclesiastical laws are to be understood according to the proper meaning of the words considered in their text and context. If the meaning remains doubtful or
obscure, there must be recourse to parallel places, if there be any, to the purpose and circumstances of the law, and to the mind of the legislator. Gratian

Can. 18 Laws which prescribe a penalty, or restrict the free exercise of rights, or contain an exception to the law, are to be interpreted strictly.

Can. 19 If on a particular matter there is not an express provision of either universal or particular law, nor a custom, then, provided it is not a penal matter, the question is
to be decided by taking into account laws enacted in similar matters, the general principles of law observed with canonical equity, the jurisprudence and practice of the
Roman Curia, and the common and constant opinion of learned authors.

Can. 20 A later law abrogates or derogates from an earlier law, if it expressly so states, or if it is directly contrary to that law, or if it integrally reorders the whole
subject matter of the earlier law. A universal law, however, does not derogate from a particular or from a special law, unless the law expressly provides otherwise.

Can. 21 In doubt, the revocation of a previous law is not presumed; rather, later laws are to be related to earlier ones and, as far as possible, harmonized with them.

Can. 22 When the law of the Church remits some issue to the civil law, the latter is to be observed with the same effects in canon law, insofar as it is not contrary to
divine law, and provided it is not otherwise stipulated in canon law.


Can. 23 A custom introduced by a community of the faithful has the force of law only if it has been approved by the legislator, in accordance with the following canons. Gratian D.11-12

Can. 24 1 No custom which is contrary to divine law can acquire the force of law. Gratian, D.4 dictum post c.3

2 A custom which is contrary to or apart from canon law, cannot acquire the force of law unless it is reasonable; a custom which is expressly reproved in the <canon> law is
not reasonable.

Can. 25 No custom acquires the force of law unless it has been observed, with the intention of introducing a law, by a community capable at least of receiving a law.

Can. 26 Unless it has been specifically approved by the competent legislator, a custom which is contrary to the canon law currently in force, or is apart from the canon
law, acquires the force of law only when it has been lawfully observed for a period of thirty continuous and complete years. Only a centennial or immemorial custom can
prevail over a canonical law which carries a clause forbidding future customs.

Can. 27 Custom is the best interpreter of laws.

Can. 28 Without prejudice to the provisions of can. 5, a custom, whether contrary to or apart from the law, is revoked by a contrary custom or law. But unless the law
makes express mention of them, it does not revoke centennial or immemorial customs, nor does a universal law revoke particular customs.


Can. 29 General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the
provisions of the canons on laws.

Can. 30 A general decree, as in can. 29, cannot be made by one who has only executive power, unless in particular cases this has been expressly authorized by the
competent legislator in accordance with the law, and provided the conditions prescribed in the act of authorization are observed.

Can. 31 1 Within the limits of their competence, those who have executive power can issue general executory decrees, that is, decrees which define more precisely the
manner of applying a law, or which urge the observance of laws. 2 The provisions of can. 8 are to be observed in regard to the promulgation, and to the interval before
the coming into effect, of the decrees mentioned in 1.

Can. 32 General executory decrees which define the manner of application or urge the observance of laws, bind those who are bound by the laws.

Can. 33 1 General executory decrees, even if published in directories or other such documents, do not derogate from the law, and any of their provisions which are
contrary to the law have no force. 2 These decrees cease to have force by explicit or implicit revocation by the competent authority, and by the cessation of the law for
whose execution they were issued. They do not cease on the expiry of the authority of the person who issued them, unless the contrary is expressly provided.

Can. 34 1 Instructions, namely, which set out the provisions of a law and develop the manner in which it is to be put into effect, are given for the benefit of those whose
duty it is to execute the law, and they bind them in executing the law. Those who have executive power may, within the limits of their competence, lawfully publish such

2 The regulations of an instruction do not derogate from the law, and if there are any which cannot be reconciled with the provisions of the law they have no force.

3 Instructions cease to have force not only by explicit or implicit revocation by the competent authority who published them or by that authority's superior, but also by
the cessation of the law which they were designed to set out and execute.



Can. 35 Within the limits of his or her competence, one who has executive power can issue a singular administrative act, either by decree or precept, or by rescript,
without prejudice to Can. 76 1.

Can. 36 1 An administrative act is to be understood according to the proper meaning of the words and the common manner of speaking. In doubt, a strict interpretation
is to be given to those administrative acts which concern litigation or threaten or inflict penalties, or restrict the rights of persons, or harm the acquired rights of others, or
run counter to a law in favor of private persons; all other administrative acts are to be widely interpreted.

2 Administrative acts must not be extended to cases other than those expressly stated.

Can. 37 An administrative act which concerns the external forum is to be effected in writing; likewise, if it requires an executor, the act of execution is to be in writing.

Can. 38 An administrative act, even if there is question of a rescript given Motu proprio, has no effect in so far as it harms the acquired right of another, or is contrary to a law or approved custom, unless the competent authority has expressly added a derogatory clause.

Can. 39 Conditions attached to an administrative act are considered to concern validity only when they are expressed by the particles 'if', 'unless', 'provided that'.

Can. 40 The executor of any administrative act cannot validly carry out this office before receiving the relevant document and establishing its authenticity and integrity,
unless prior notice of this document has been conveyed to the executor on the authority of the person who issued the administrative act.

Can. 41 The executor of an administrative act to whom the task of execution only is entrusted, cannot refuse to execute it, unless it is quite clear that the act itself is null,
or that it cannot for some other grave reason be sustained, or that the conditions attached to the administrative act itself have not been fulfilled. If, however, the
execution of the administrative act would appear to be inopportune, by reason of the circumstances of person or place, the executor is to desist from the execution, and
immediately inform the person who issued the act.

Can. 42 The executor of an administrative act must proceed in accordance with the mandate. If, however, the executor has not fulfilled essential conditions attached to
the document, or has not observed the substantial form of procedure, the execution is invalid.

Can. 43 The executor of an administrative act may in his prudent judgment substitute another for himself, unless substitution has been forbidden, or he has been
deliberately chosen as the only person to be executor, or a specific person has been designated as substitute; however, in these cases the executor may commit the
preparatory acts to another.

Can. 44 An administrative act can also be executed by the executor's successor in office, unless the first had been chosen deliberately as the only person to be executor.

Can. 45 If there has been any error in the execution of an administrative act, the executor may execute it again.

Can. 46 An administrative act does not cease on the expiry of the authority of the person issuing it, unless the law expressly provides otherwise.

Can. 47 The revocation of an administrative act by another administrative act of the competent authority takes effect only from the moment at which the person to
whom it was issued is lawfully notified.


Can. 48 A singular decree is an administrative act issued by a competent executive authority, whereby in accordance with the norms of law a decision is given or a
provision made for a particular case; of its nature this decision or provision does not presuppose that a petition has been made by anyone.

Can. 49 A singular precept is a decree by which an obligation is directly and lawfully imposed on a specific person or persons to do or to omit something, especially in
order to urge the observance of a law.

Can. 50 Before issuing a singular decree, the person in authority is to seek the necessary information and proof and, as far as possible, is to consult those whose rights
could be harmed.

Can. 51 A decree is to be issued in writing. When it is a decision, it should express, at least in summary form, the reasons for the decision.

Can. 52 A singular decree has effect in respect only of those matters it determines and of those persons to whom it was issued; it obliges such persons everywhere,
unless it is otherwise clear.

Can. 53 If decrees are contrary one to another, where specific matters are expressed, the specific prevails over the general; if both are equally specific or equally
general, the one later in time abrogates the earlier insofar as it is contrary to it.

Can. 54 1 A singular decree whose application is entrusted to an executor, has effect from the moment of execution; otherwise, from the moment when it is made
known to the person on the authority of the one who issued it.

2 For a singular decree to be enforceable, it must be made known by a lawful document in accordance with the law.

Can. 55 Without prejudice to cann. 37 and 51, whenever a very grave reason prevents the handing over of the written text of a decree, the decree is deemed to have
been made known if it is read to the person to whom it is directed, in the presence of a notary or two witnesses - a record of the occasion is to be drawn up and signed
by all present.

Can. 56 A decree is deemed to have been made known if the person to whom it is directed has been duly summoned to receive or to hear the decree, and without a just
reason has not appeared or has refused to sign.

Can. 57 1 Whenever the law orders a decree to be issued, or when a person who is concerned lawfully requests a decree or has recourse to obtain one, the competent
authority is to provide for the situation within three months of having received the petition or recourse, unless a different period of time is prescribed by law.

2 If this period of time has expired and the decree has not yet been given, then as far as proposing a further recourse is concerned, the reply is presumed to be

3 A presumed negative reply does not relieve the competent authority of the obligation of issuing the decree, and, in accordance with can. 128, of repairing any harm

Can. 58 1 A singular decree ceases to have force when it is lawfully revoked by the competent authority, or when the law ceases for whose execution it was issued.

2 A singular precept, which was not imposed by a lawful document, ceases on the expiry of the authority of the person who issued it.


Can. 59 1 A rescript is an administrative act issued in writing by a competent authority, by which of its very nature a privilege, dispensation or other favor is granted at
someone's request.

2 Unless it is otherwise established, provisions laid down concerning rescripts apply also to the granting of permission and to the granting of favors by word of mouth.

Can. 60 Any rescript can be obtained by all who are not expressly prohibited.

Can. 61 Unless it is otherwise established, a rescript can be obtained for another, even without that person's consent, and it is valid before its acceptance, without
prejudice to contrary clauses.

Can. 62 A rescript in which there is no executor, has effect from the moment the document was issued; the others have effect from the moment of execution.

Can. 63 1 Except where there is question of a rescript which grants a favor Motu proprio, subreption, that is, the withholding of the truth, renders a rescript invalid if
the request does not express that which, according to canonical law, style and practice, must for validity be expressed.

2 Obreption, that is, the making of a false statement, renders a rescript invalid if not even one of the motivating reasons submitted is true.

3 In rescripts of which there is no executor, the motivating reason must be true at the time the rescript is issued; in the others, at the time of execution.

Can. 64 Without prejudice to the right of the Penitentiary for the internal forum, a favor refused by any department of the Roman Curia cannot validly be granted by
another department of the same Curia, or by any other competent authority below the Roman Pontiff, without the approval of the department which was first

Can. 65 1 Without prejudice to the provisions of 2 and 3, no one is to seek from another Ordinary a favor which was refused by that person's proper Ordinary,
unless mention is made of the refusal. When the refusal is mentioned, the Ordinary is not to grant the favor unless he has learned from the former Ordinary the reasons
for the refusal.

2 A favor refused by a Vicar general or an episcopal Vicar cannot be validly granted by another Vicar of the same Bishop, even when he has learned from the Vicar
who refused the reasons for the refusal.

3 A favor refused by a Vicar general or an episcopal Vicar and later, without any mention being made of this refusal, obtained from the diocesan Bishop, is invalid. A
favor refused by the diocesan Bishop cannot, without the Bishop's consent, validly be obtained from his Vicar general or episcopal Vicar, even though mention is made
of the refusal.

Can. 66 A rescript is not rendered invalid because of an error in the name of the person to whom it is given or by whom it is issued, or of the place in which such person
resides, or of the matter concerned, provided that in the judgment of the Ordinary there is no doubt about the person or the matter in question.

Can. 67 1 If it should happen that two contrary rescripts are obtained for one and the same thing, where specific matters are expressed, the specific prevails over the

2 If both are equally specific or equally general, the one earlier in time prevails over the later, unless in the later one there is an express mention of the earlier, or unless
the person who first obtained the rescript has not used it by reason of deceit or of notable personal negligence.

3 In doubt as to whether a rescript is invalid or not, recourse is to be made to the issuing authority.

Can. 68 A rescript of the Apostolic See in which there is no executor must be presented to the Ordinary of the person who obtains it only when this is prescribed in the
rescript, or when there is question of public affairs, or when it is necessary to have the conditions verified.

Can. 69 A rescript for whose presentation no time is determined, may be submitted to the executor at any time, provided there is no fraud or deceit.

Can. 70 If in a rescript the very granting of the favor is entrusted to the executor, it is a matter for the executor's prudent judgment and conscience to grant or to
refuse the favor.

Can. 71 No one is obliged to use a rescript granted in his or her favor only, unless bound by a canonical obligation from another source to do so .

Can. 72 Rescripts granted by the Apostolic See which have expired, can for a just reason be extended by the diocesan Bishop, but once only and not beyond three

Can. 73 No rescripts are revoked by a contrary law, unless it is otherwise provided in the law itself.

Can. 74 Although one who has been granted a favor orally may use it in the internal forum, that person is obliged to prove the favor for the external forum whenever
this is lawfully requested.

Can. 75 If a rescript contains a privilege or a dispensation, the provision of the following canons are also to be observed.


Can. 76 1 A privilege is a favor given by a special act for the benefit of certain persons, physical or juridical; it can be granted by the legislator, and by an executive
authority to whom the legislator has given this power.

2 Centennial or immemorial possession of a privilege gives rise to the presumption that it has been granted.

Can. 77 A privilege is to be interpreted in accordance with can. 36 1. The interpretation must, however, always be such that the beneficiaries of the privilege do in fact receive some favor.

Can. 78 1 A privilege is presumed to be perpetual, unless the contrary is proved.

2 A personal privilege, namely one which attaches to a person, is extinguished with the person.

3 A real privilege ceases on the total destruction of the thing or place; a local privilege, however, revives if the place is restored within fifty years.

Can. 79 Without prejudice to can. 46, a privilege ceases by revocation on the part of the competent authority in accordance with can. 47.

Can. 80 1 No privilege ceases by renunciation unless this has been accepted by the competent authority.

2 Any physical person may renounce a privilege granted in his or her favor only.

3 Individual persons cannot renounce a privilege granted to a juridical person, or granted by reason of the dignity of a place or thing. Nor can a juridical person
renounce a privilege granted to it, if the renunciation would be prejudicial to the Church or to others.

Can. 81 A privilege is not extinguished on the expiry of the authority of the person who granted it, unless it was given with the clause 'at our pleasure' or another
equivalent expression.

Can. 82 A privilege which does not burden others does not lapse through non-use or contrary use; if it does cause an inconvenience for others, it is lost if lawful
prescription intervenes.

Can. 83 1 Without prejudice to can. 142 2, a privilege ceases on the expiry of the time or the completion of the number of cases for which it was granted.

2 It ceases also if in the judgment of the competent authority circumstances are so changed with the passage of time that it has become harmful, or that its use
becomes unlawful.

Can. 84 A person who abuses a power given by a privilege deserves to be deprived of the privilege itself. Accordingly, after a warning which has been in vain, the
Ordinary, if it was he who granted it, is to deprive the person of the privilege which he or she is gravely abusing; if the privilege has been granted by the Apostolic See,
the Ordinary is obliged to make the matter known to it.


Can. 85 A dispensation, that is, the relaxation of a merely ecclesiastical law in a particular case, can be granted, within the limits of their competence, by those who have executive power, and by those who either explicitly or implicitly have the power of dispensing, whether by virtue of the law itself or by lawful delegation.

Can. 86 In so far as laws define those elements which are essentially constitutive of institutes or of juridical acts, they are not subject to dispensation.

Can. 87 1 Whenever he judges that it contributes to their spiritual welfare, the diocesan Bishop can dispense the faithful from disciplinary laws, both universal laws and those particular laws made by the supreme ecclesiastical authority for his territory or his subjects. He cannot dispense from procedural laws or from penal laws, nor
from those whose dispensation is specially reserved to the Apostolic See or to some other authority.

2 If recourse to the Holy See is difficult, and at the same time there is danger of grave harm in delay, any Ordinary can dispense from these laws, even if the
dispensation is reserved to the Holy See, provided the dispensation is one which the Holy See customarily grants in the same circumstances, and without prejudice to
can. 291.

Can. 88 The local Ordinary can dispense from diocesan laws and, whenever he judges that it contributes to the spiritual welfare of the faithful, from laws made by a
plenary or a provincial Council or by the Episcopal Conference.

Can. 89 Parish priests and other priests or deacons cannot dispense from universal or particular law unless this power is expressly granted to them.

Can. 90 1 A dispensation from an ecclesiastical law is not to be given without a just and reasonable cause, taking into account the circumstances of the case and the
importance of the law from which the dispensation is given; otherwise the dispensation is unlawful and, unless given by the legislator or his superior, it is also invalid.

2 A dispensation given in doubt about the sufficiency of its reason is valid and lawful.

Can. 91 In respect of their subjects, even if these are outside the territory, those who have the power of dispensing can exercise it even if they themselves are outside
their territory; unless the contrary is expressly provided, they can exercise it also in respect of peregrini actually present in the territory; they can exercise it too in
respect of themselves.

Can. 92 A strict interpretation is to be given not only to a dispensation in accordance with can. 36 1, but also to the very power of dispensing granted for a specific

Can. 93 A dispensation capable of successive applications ceases in the same way as a privilege. It also ceases by the certain and complete cessation of the motivating


Can. 94 1 Statutes properly so called are regulations which are established in accordance with the law in aggregates of persons or of things, whereby the purpose,
constitution, governance and manner of acting of these bodies are defined.

2 The statutes of an aggregate of persons bind only those persons who are lawfully members of it; the statutes of an aggregate of things bind those who direct it.

3 The provisions of statutes which are established and promulgated by virtue of legislative power, are regulated by the provisions of the canons concerning laws.

Can. 95 1 Ordinances are rules or norms to be observed both in assemblies of persons, whether these assemblies are convened by ecclesiastical authority or are freely
convoked by the faithful, and in other celebrations: they define those matters which concern their constitution, direction and agenda.

2 In assemblies or celebrations, those who take part are bound by these rules of ordinance.






Can. l. Licet in Codice iuris canonici Ecclesiae quoque Orientalis disciplina saepe referatur, ipse tamen unam respicit Latinam Ecclesiam, neque Orientalem obligat, nisi
de iis agatur, quae ex ipsa rei natura etiam Orientalem afficiunt.

Can. 2. Codex, plerumque, nihil decernit de ritibus et caeremoniis quas liturgici libri, ab Ecclesia Latina probati, servandas praecipiunt in celebratione sacrosancti Missae
sacrificii, in administratione Sacramentorum et Sacramentalium aliisque sacris peragendis. Quare omnes liturgicae leges vim suam retinent nisi earum aliqua in Codice
expresse corrigatur.

Can. 3. Codicis canones initas ab Apostolica Sede cum variis Nationibus conventiones nullatenus abrogant aut iis aliquid obrogant; eae idcirco perinde ac in praesens
vigere pergent, contrariis huius Codicis praescriptis minime obstantibus.

Can. 4. Iura aliis quaesita, itemque privilegia atque indulta quae, ab Apostolica Sede ad haec usque tempora personis sive physicis sive moralibus concessa, in usu adhuc
sunt nec revocata, integra manent, nisi huius Codicis canonibus expresse revocentur.

Can. 5. Vigentes in praesens contra horum statuta canonum consuetudines sive universales sive particulares, si quidem ipsis canonibus expresse reprobentur, tanquam
iuris corruptelae corrigantur, licet sint immemorabiles, neve sinantur in posterum reviviscere; aliae, quae quidem centenariae sint et immemorabiles, tolerari poterunt, si
Ordinarii pro locorum ac personarum adiunctis existiment eas prudenter submoveri non posse; ceterae suppressae habeantur nisi expresse Codex aliud caveat.

Can. 6. Codex vigentem huc usque disciplinam plerumque retinet, licet opportunas immutationes afferat. Itaque:

1.deg. Leges quaelibet, sive universales sive particulares, praescriptis huius Codicis oppositae, abrogantur nisi de particularibus legibus aliud expresse caveatur;

2.deg. Canones qui ius vetus ex integro referunt, ex veteris iuris auctoritate, atque ideo ex receptis apud probatos auctores interpretationibus, sunt aestimandi;

3.deg. Canones qui ex parte tantum cum veteri iure congruunt, qua congruunt, ex iure antiquo aestimandi sunt; qua discrepant, sunt ex sua ipsorum sententia diiudicandi;

4.deg. In dubio num aliquod canonum praescriptum cum veteri iure discrepet, a veteri iure non est recedendum;

5.deg. Quod ad poenas attinet, quarum in Codice nulla fit mentio, spirituales sint vel temporales, medicinales vel, ut vocant, vindicativae, latae vel ferendae sententiae,
eae tanquam abrogatae habeantur;

6.deg. Si qua ex ceteris disciplinaribus legibus, quae usque adhuc viguerunt, nec explicite nec implicite in Codice contineatur, ea vim omnem amisisse dicenda est, nisi in
probatis liturgicis libris reperiatur, aut lex sit iuris divini sive positivi sive naturalis.

Can. 7. Nomine Sedis Apostolicae vel Sanctae Sedis in hoc Codice veniunt non solum Romanus Pontifex, sed etiam, nisi ex rei natura vel sermonis contextu aliud
appareat, Congregationes, Tribunalia, Officia, per quae idem Romanus Pontifex negotia Ecclesiae universae expedire solet.


De legibus ecclesiasticis.

Can. 8. par. 1. Leges instituuntur, cum promulgantur.

par. 2. Lex non praesumitur personalis, sed territorialis, nisi aliud constet.

Can. 9. Leges ab Apostolica Sede latae promulgantur per editionem in Actorum Apostolicae Sedis commentario officiali, nisi in casibus particularibus alius
promulgandi modus fuerit praescriptus; et vim suam exserunt tantum expletis tribus mensibus a die qui Actorum numero appositus est, nisi ex natura rei illico ligent aut in
ipsa lege brevior vel longior vacatio specialiter et expresse fuerit statuta.

Can.10. Leges respiciunt futura, non praeterita, nisi nominatim in eis de praeteritis caveatur.

Can. 11. Irritantes aut inhabilitantes eae tantum leges habendae sunt, quibus aut actum esse nullum aut inhabilem esse personam expresse vel aequivalenter statuitur.

Can. 12. Legibus mere ecclesiasticis non tenentur qui baptismum non receperunt, nec baptizati qui sufficienti rationis usu non gaudent, nec qui, licet rationis usum
assecuti, septimum aetatis annum nondum expleverunt, nisi aliud iure expresse caveatur.

Can. l3. par. l. Legibus generalibus tenentur ubique terrarum omnes pro quibus latae sunt.

par. 2. Legibus conditis pro peculiari territorio ii subiiciuntur pro quibus latae sunt quique ibidem domicilium vel quasi-domicilium habent et simul actu commorantur, firmo
praescripto can. 14.

Can.l4. par. 1. Peregrini:

l.deg. Non adstringuntur legibus particularibus sui territorii quandiu ab eo absunt, nisi aut earum transgressio in proprio territorio noceat, aut leges sint personales;

2.deg. Neque legibus territorii in quo versantur, iis exceptis quae ordini publico consulunt, vel actuum sollemnia determinant;

3.deg. At legibus generalibus tennentur etiamsi hae suo in territorio non vigeant, minime vero si in loco in quo versantur non obligent.

par. 2. Vagi obligantur legibus tam generalibus quam particularibus quae vigent in loco in quo versantur.

Can. 15. Leges, etiam irritantes et inhabilitantes, in dubio iuris non urgent; in dubio autem facti potest Ordinarius in eis dispensare, dummodo agatur de legibus in quibus
Romanus Pontifex dispensare solet.

Can. 16. par. l. Nulla ignorantia legum irritantium aut inhabilitantium ab eisdem excusat, nisi aliud expresse dicatur.

par. 2. Ignorantia vel error circa legem aut poenam aut circa factum proprium aut circa factum alienum notorium generatim non praesumitur; circa factum alienum non
notorium praesumitur, donec contrarium probetur.

Can. 17. par. l. Leges authentice interpretatur legislator eiusve successor et is cui potestas interpretandi fuerit ab eisdem commissa.

par. 2. Interpretatio authentica, per modum legis exhibita, eandem vim habet ac lex ipsa; et si verba legis in se certa declaret tantum, promulgatione non eget et valet
retrorsum; si legem coarctet vel extendat aut dubiam explicet, non retrotrahitur et debet promulgari.

par. 3. Data autem per modum sententiae iudicialis aut rescripti in re peculiari, vim legis non habet et ligat tantum personas atque afficit res pro quibus data est.

Can. 18. Leges ecclesiasticae intelligendae sunt secundum propriam verborum significationem in textu et contextu consideratam; quae si dubia et obscura manserit, ad
locos Codicis parallelos, si qui sint, ad legis finem ac circumstantias et ad mentem legislatoris est recurrendum.

Can. 19. Leges quae poenam statuunt, aut liberum iurium exercitium coarctant, aut exceptionem a lege continent, strictae subsunt interpretationi.

Can. 20. Si certa de re desit expressum praescriptum legis sive generalis sive particularis, norma sumenda est, nisi agatur de poenis applicandis, a legibus latis in
similibus; a generalibus iuris principiis cum aequitate canonica servatis; a stylo et praxi Curiae Romanae; a communi constantique sententia doctorum.

Can. 21. Leges latae ad praecavendum periculum generale, urgent, etiamsi in casu peculiari periculum non adsit.

Can. 22. Lex posterior, a competenti auctoritate lata, obrogat priori, si id expresse edicat, aut sit illi directe contraria, aut totam de integro ordinet legis prioris materiam;
sed firmo praeseripto can. 6, n. 1, lex generalis nullatenus derogat locorum specialium et personarum singularium statutis, nisi aliud in ipsa expresse caveatur.

Can. 23. In dubio revocatio legis praeexsistentis non praesumitur, sed leges posteriores ad priores trahendae sunt et his, quantum fieri possit conciliandae.

Can. 24. Praecepta, singulis data, eos quibus dantur, ubique urgent, sed iudicialiter urgeri nequeunt et cessant resoluto iure praecipientis nisi per legitimum documentum
aut coram duobus testibus imposita fuerint.


De consuetudine.

Can. 25. Consuetudo in Ecclesia vim legis a consensu competentis Superioris ecclesiastici unice obtinet.

Can. 26. Communitas quae legis ecclesiasticae saltem recipiendae capax est, potest consuetudinem inducere quae vim legis obtineat.

Can. 27. par. 1. Iuri divino sive naturali sive positivo nulla consuetudo potest aliquatenus derogare; sed neque iuri ecclesiastico praeiudicium affert, nisi fuerit rationabilis et legitime per annos quadraginta continuos et completos praescripta; contra legem vero ecclesiasticam quae clausulam contineat futuras consuetudines prohibentem, sola praescribere potest rationabilis consuetudo centenaria aut immemorabilis.

par. 2. Consuetudo quae in iure expresse reprobatur non est rationabilis.

Can. 28. Consuetudo praeter legem, quae scienter a communitate cum animo se obligandi servata sit, legem inducit, si pariter fuerit rationabilis et legitime per annos
quadraginta continuos et completos praescripta.

Can. 29. Consuetudo est optima legum interpres.

Can. 30. Firmo praescripto can. 5, consuetudo contra legem vel praeter legem per contrariam consuetudinem aut legem revocatur; sed, nisi expressam de iisdem
mentionem fecerit, lex non revocat consuetudines centenarias aut immemorabiles, nec lex generalis consuetudines particulares.


De temporis supputatione.

Can. 31. Salvis legibus liturgicis, tempus, nisi aliud expresse caveatur, supputetur ad normam canonum qui sequuntur.

Can. 32. par. 1. Dies constat 24 horis continuo supputandis a media nocte, hebdomada 7 diebus.

par. 2. In iure nomine mensis venit spatium 30, anni vero spatium 365 dierum, nisi mensis et annus dicantur sumendi prout sunt in calendario.

Can. 33. par. 1. In supputandis horis diei standum est communi loci usui; sed in privata Missae celebratione, in privata horarum canonicarum recitatione, in sacra
communione recipienda et in ieiunii vel abstinentiae lege servanda, licet alia sit usualis loci supputatio, potest quis sequi loci tempus aut locale sive verum sive medium, aut
legale sive regionale sive aliud extraordinarium.

par. 2. Quod attinet ad tempus urgendi contractuum obligationes, servetur, nisi aliter expressa pactione conventum fuerit, praescriptum iuris civilis in territorio vigentis.

Can. 34. par. 1. Si mensis et annus designentur proprio nomine vel aequivalenter, ex. gr., mense februario, anno proxime futuro, sumantur prout sunt in calendario.

par. 2. Si terminus a quo nec explicite nec implicite assignetur, ex. gr., suspensio a Missae celebratione per mensem aut duos annos, tres in anno vacationum
menses, etc., tempus supputetur de momento ad momentum; et si tempus sit continuum, ut in allato primo exemplo, menses et anni sumantur prout sunt in calendario; si
intermissum, hebdomada intelligatur 7 dierum, mensis 30, annus 365.

par. 3. Si tempus constet uno vel pluribus mensibus aut annis, una vel pluribus hebdomadibus aut tandem pluribus diebus, et terminus a quo explicite vel implicite

l.deg. Menses et anni sumantur prout sunt in calendario;

2.deg. Si terminus a quo coincidat cum initio diei, ex. gr., duo vacationum menses a die 15 augusti, primus dies ad explendam numerationem computetur et tempus
finiatur incipiente ultimo die eiusdem numeri;

3.deg. Si terminus a quo non coincidat cum initio diei, ex. gr., decimus quartus aetatis annus, annus novitiatus, octiduum a vacatione sedis episcopalis, decendium
ad appellandum, etc., primus dies ne computetur et tempus finiatur expleto ultimo die eiusdem numeri;

4.deg. Quod si mensis die eiusdem numeri careat, ex. gr., unus mensis a die 30 ianuarii, tunc pro diverso casu tempus finiatur incipiente vel expleto ultimo die mensis;

5.deg. Si agatur de actibus eiusdem generis statis temporibus renovandis, ex. gr., triennium ad professionem perpetuam post temporariam, triennium aliudve
temporis spatium ad electionem renovandam, etc., tempus finitur eodem recurrente die quo incepit, sed novus actus per integrum eundem diem poni potest.

Can. 35. Tempus utile illud intelligitur quod pro exercitio aut prosecutione sui iuris ita alicui competit ut ignoranti aut agere non valenti non currat; continuum, quod
nullam patitur interruptionem.


De rescriptis.

Can. 36. par. l. Rescripta tum Sedis Apostolicae tum aliorum Ordinariorum impetrari libere possunt ab omnibus qui expresse non prohibentur.

par. 2. Gratiae et dispensationes omne genus a Sede Apostolica concessae etiam censura irretitis validae sunt, salvo praescripto can. 2265, par. 2, 2275, n. 3, 2283.

Can. 37. Rescriptum impetrari potest pro alio etiam praeter eius assensum; et licet ipse possit gratia per rescriptum concessa non uti, rescriptum tamen valet ante eius
acceptationem, nisi aliud ex appositis clausulis appareat.

Can. 38. Rescripta quibus gratia conceditur sine interiecto exsecutore, effectum habent a momento quo datae sunt litterae; cetera a tempore exsecutionis.

Can. 39. Conditiones in rescriptis tunc tantum essentiales pro eorundem validitate censentur, cum per particulas si, dummodo, vel aliam eiusdem significationis

Can. 40. In omnibus rescriptis subintelligenda est, etsi non expressa, conditio: Si preces veritate nitantur, salvo praescripto can. 45, 1054.

Can. 41. In rescriptis quorum nullus est exsecutor, preces veritate nitantur oportet tempore quo rescriptum datum est; in ceteris tempore exsecutionis.

Can. 42. par. l. Reticentia veri, seu subreptio, in precibus non obstat quominus reseriptum vim habeat ratumque sit, dummodo expressa fuerint quae de stylo Curiae sunt
ad validitatem exprimenda.

par. 2. Nec obstat expositio falsi, seu obreptio, dummodo vel unica causa proposita vel ex pluribus propositis una saltem motiva vera sit.

par. 3. Vitium obreptionis vel subreptionis in una tantum parte rescripti aliam non infirmat, si una simul plures gratiae per rescriptum concedantur.

Can. 43. Gratia ab una Sacra Congregatione vel Officio Romanae Curiae denegata, invalide ab alia Sacra Congregatione vel Officio aut a loci Ordinario, etsi potestatem
habente, conceditur sine assensu Sacrae Congregationis vel Officii quocum vel quibuscum agi coeptum fuit, salvo iure S. Poenitentiariae pro foro interno.

Can. 44. par. 1. Nemo gratiam a proprio Ordinario denegatam ab alio Ordinario petat, nulla facta denegationis mentione; facta autem mentione, Ordinarius gratiam ne
concedat, nisi habitis a priore Ordinario denegationis rationibuns.

par. 2. Gratia a Vicario Generali denegata et postea, nulla facta huius denegationis mentione, ab Episcopo impetrata, invalida est; gratia autem ab Episcopo denegata
nequit valide, etiam facta denegationis mentione, a Vicario Generali, non consentiente Episcopo, impetrari.

Can. 45. Cum rescriptis ad preces alicuius impetratis apponitur clausula: Motu proprio, valent quidem ea, si in precibus reticeatur veritas alioquin necessario
exprimenda, non tamen si falsa causa finalis eaque unica proponatur, salvo praescripto can. 1054.

Can. 46. Rescripta etiam Motu proprio concessa personae de iure communi inhabili ad consequendam gratiam de qua agitur, itemque edita contra alicuius loci
legitimam consuetudinem vel statutum peculiare, vel contra ius alteri iam quaesitum, non sustinentur, nisi expressa derogatoria clausula rescripto apponatur.

Can. 47. Rescripta non fiunt irrita ob errorem in nomine personae cui vel a qua conceduntur, aut loci in quo ipsa moratur, aut rei de qua agitur, dummodo iudicio Ordinarii,
nulla sit de ipsa persona vel re dubitatio.

Can. 48. par. 1. Si contingat ut de una eademque re duo rescripta inter se contraria impetrentur, peculiare, in iis quae peculiariter exprimuntur, praevalet generali.

par. 2. Si sint aeque peculiaria aut generalia, prius tempore praevalet posteriori, nisi in altero fiat expressa mentio de priore, aut nisi prior impetrator dolo vel notabili
negligentia suo rescripto usus non fuerit.

par. 3. Quod si eodem die fuerint concessa nec liqueat uter prior impetraverit, utrumque irritum est, et, si res ferat, rursus ad eum qui rescripta dedit, est recurrendum.

Can. 49. Rescripta intelligenda sunt secundum propriam verborum significationem et communem loquendi usum, nec debent ad casus alios praeter expressos extendi.

Can. 50. In dubio, rescripta quae ad lites referuntur, vel iura aliis quaesita laedunt, vel adversantur legi in commodum privatorum, vel denique impetrata fuerunt ad
beneficii ecclesiastici assecutionem, strictam interpretationem recipiunt; cetera omnia latam.

Can. 51. Rescriptum Sedis Apostolicae in quo nullus datur exsecutor, tunc tantum debet Ordinario impetrantis praesentari, cum id in eisdem litteris praecipitur, aut de
rebus agitur publicis, aut comprobare conditiones quasdam oportet.

Can. 52. Rescripta, quorum paesentationi nullum est definitum tempus, possunt exsecutori exhiberi quovis tempore, modo absit fraus et dolus.

Can. 53. Rescripti exsecutor invalide munere suo fungitur, antequam litteras receperit earumque authenticitatem et integritatem recognoverit, nisi praevia

earundem notitia ad eum fuerit auctoritate rescribentis transmissa.

Can. 54. par. 1. Si in rescripto committatur merum exsecutionis ministerium, exsecutio rescripti denegari non potest, nisi aut manifeste pateat rescriptum vitio subreptionis
aut obreptionis nullum esse, aut in rescripto apponantur conditiones quas exsecutori constet non esse impletas, aut qui rescriptum impetravit adeo iudicio exsecutoris,
videatur indignus ut aliorum offensioni futura sit gratiae concessio; quod ultimum si accidat, exsecutor, intermissa exsecutione statim ea de re certiorem faciat

par. 2. Quod si in rescripto concessio gratiae exsecutori committatur, ipsius est pro suo prudenti arbitrio et conscientia gratiam concedere vel denegare.

Can. 55. Exsecutor procedere debet ad mandati normam, et nisi conditiones essentiales in litteris appositas impleverit ac substantialem procedendi formam servaverit,
irrita est exsecutio.

Can. 56. Exsecutio rescriptorum quae forum externum respiciunt, scripto facienda est.

Can. 57. par. 1. Rescriptorum exsecutor potest alium pro suo prudenti arbitrio sibi substituere, nisi substitutio prohibita fuerit, aut substituti persona praefinita.

par. 2. Si tamen fuerit electa industria personae, exsecutori non licet alteri committere, nisi actus praeparatorios.

Can. 58. Rescripta quaelibet exsecutioni mandari possunt etiam ab exsecutoris successore in dignitate vel officio, nisi fuerit electa industria personae.

Can. 59. par. 1. Exsecutori fas est, si quoquo modo in rescriptorum exsecutione erraverit, iterum eadem exsecutioni mandare.

par. 2. Quod attinet ad taxas pro rescriptorum exsecutione, servetur praescriptum can. 1507, par. l.

Can. 60. par. 1. Rescriptum, per peculiarem Superioris actum revocatum, perdurat usque dum revocatio ei, qui illud obtinuit, significetur.

par. 2. Per legem contrariam nulla rescripta revocantur, nisi aliud in ipsa lege caveatur, aut lex lata sit a Superiore ipsius rescribentis.

Can. 61. Per Apostolicae Sedis aut dioecesis vacationem nullum eiusdem Sedis Apostolicae aut Ordinarii rescriptum perimitur, nisi aliud ex additis clausulis appareat, aut
rescriptum contineat potestatem alicui factam concedendi gratiam peculiaribus personis in eodem expressis, et res adhuc integra sit.

Can. 62. Si rescriptum contineat non simplicem gratiam, sed privilegium vel dispensationem, serventur insuper praescripta canonum qui sequuntur.


De privilegiis.

Can. 63. par. 1. Privilegia acquiri possunt non solum per directam concessionem competentis auctoritatis et per communicationem, sed etiam per legitimam
consuetudinem aut praescriptionem.

par. 2. Possessio centenaria vel immemorabilis inducit praesumptionem concessi privilegii.

Can. 64. Per communicationem privilegiorum, etiam in forma aeque principali, ea tantum privilegia impertita censentur, quae directe, perpetuo et sine speciali relatione ad
certum locum aut rem aut personam concessa fuerant primo privilegiario, habita etiam ratione capacitatis subiecti, cui fit communicatio.

Can. 65. Cum privilegia acquiruntur per communicationem in forma accessoria, augentur, imminuuntur vel amittuntur ipso facto, si forte augeantur, imminuantur vel
cessent in principali privilegiario; secus si acquirantur per communicationem in forma aeque principali.

Can. 66. par. 1. Facultates habituales quae conceduntur vel in perpetuum vel ad praefinitum tempus aut certum numerum casuum, accensentur privilegiis praeter ius.

par. 2. Nisi in earum concessione electa fuerit industria personae aut aliud expresse cautum sit, facultates habituales, Episcopo aliisve de quibus in can. 198, par. 1 ab
Apostolica Sede concessae, non evanescunt, resoluto iure Ordinarii cui concessae sunt, etiamsi ipse eas exsequi coeperit, sed transeunt ad Ordinarios qui ipsi in regimine
succedunt; item concessae Episcopo competunt quoque Vicario Generali.

par. 3. Concessa facultas secumfert alias quoque potestates quae ad illius usum sunt necessariae; quare in facultate dispensandi includitur etiam potestas absolvendi a
poenis ecclesiasticis, si quae forte obstent, sed ad effectum dumtaxat dispensationis consequendae.

Can. 67. Privilegium ex ipsius tenore aestimandum est, nec licet illud extendere aut restringere.

Can. 68. In dubio privilegia interpretanda sunt ad normam can. 50; sed ea semper adhibenda interpretatio, ut privilegio aucti aliquam ex indulgentia concedentis videantur
gratiam consecuti.

Can. 69. Nemo cogitur uti privilegio in sui dumtaxat favorem concesso, nisi alio ex capite exsurgat obligatio.

Can. 70. Privilegium, nisi aliud constet, censendum est perpetuum.

Can. 71. Per legem generalem revocantur privilegia in hoc Codice contenta; ad cetera quod attinet, servetur praescriptum can. 60.

Can. 72. par. 1. Privilegia cessant per renuntiationem a competenti Superiore acceptatam.

par. 2. Privilegio in sui tantum favorem constituto quaevis persona privata renuntiare potest.

par. 3. Concesso alicui communitati, dignitati locove renuntiare privatis personis non licet.

par. 4. Nec ipsi communitati seu coetui integrum est renuntiare privilegio sibi dato per modum legis, vel si renuntiatio cedat in Ecclesiae aliorumve praeiudicium.

Can. 73. Resoluto iure concedentis, privilegia non exstinguuntur, nisi data fuerint cum clausula: ad beneplacitum nostrum, vel alia aequipollenti.

Can. 74. Privilegium personale personam sequitur et cum ipsa exstinguitur.

Can. 75. Privilegia realia cessant per absolutum rei vel loci interitum; privilegia vero localia, si locus intra quadraginta annos restituatur, reviviscunt.

Can. 76. Per non usum vel per usum contrarium privilegia aliis haud onerosa non cessant; quae vero in aliorum gravamen cedunt, amittuntur, si accedat legitima
praescriptio vel tacita renuntiatio.

Can. 77. Cessat quoque privilegium, si temporis progressu rerum adiuncta sic, iudicio Superioris, immutentur ut noxium evaserit, aut eius usus illicitus fiat; item elapso
tempore vel expleto numero casuum pro quibus privilegium fuit concessum, firmo praescripto can. 207, par. 2.

Can. 78. Qui abutitur potestate sibi ex privilegio permissa, privilegio ipso privari meretur; et Ordinarius Sanctam Sedem monere ne omittat, si quis privilegio ab eadem
concesso graviter abutatur.

Can. 79. Quamvis privilegia, oretenus a Sancta Sede obtenta, ipsi petenti in foro conscientiae suffragentur, nemo tamen potest cuiusvis privilegii usum adversus
quemquam in foro externo vindicare, nisi privilegium ipsum sibi concessum esse legitime evincat.


De dispensationibus.

Can. 80. Dispensatio, seu legis in casu speciali relaxatio, concedi potest a conditore legis, ab eius successore vel Superiore, nec non ab illo cui iidem facultatem
dispensandi concesserint.

Can. 81. A generalibus Ecclesiae legibus Ordinarii infra Romanum Pontificem dispensare nequeunt, ne in casu quidem peculiari, nisi haec potestas eisdem fuerit explicite
vel implicite concessa, aut nisi difficilis sit recursus ad Sanctam Sedem et simul in mora sit periculum gravis damni, et de dispensatione agatur quae a Sede Apostolica
concedi solet.

Can. 82. Episcopi aliique locorum Ordinarii dispensare valent in legibus dioecesanis, et in legibus Concilii provincialis ac plenarii ad normam can. 291, par. 2, non vero in
legibus quas speciatim tulerit Romanus Pontifex pro illo peculiari territorio, nisi ad normam can. 81.

Can. 83. Parochi nec a lege generali nec a lege peculiari dispensare valent, nisi haec potestas expresse eisdem concessa sit.

Can. 84. par. 1. A lege ecclesiastica ne dispensetur sine iusta et rationabili causa, habita ratione gravitatis legis a qua dispensatur; alias dispensatio ab inferiore data
illicita et invalida est.

par. 2. Dispensatio in dubio de sufficientia causae licite petitur et potest licite et valide concedi.

Can. 85. Strictae subest interpretationi non solum dispensatio ad normam can. 50, sed ipsamet facultas dispensandi ad certum casum concessa.

Can. 86. Dispensatio quae tractum habet successivum, cessat iisdem modis quibus privilegium, nec non certa ac totali cessatione causae motivae.