Style Sheet for the Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law



Submit an electronic copy of the text, in Windows environment Word program, as an email attachment to  We cannot accept papers that are not in electronic form.


We shall be printing the text in 12pt and the notes in 10pt with margins of 2.06 inches (5.10 cm) on the left and right, 1.75 inches (4.4 cm) top and 2.0” (5.08 cm) bottom.  These margins are for paper size 8.5 x 11 inches (21.6 cm x 30 cm).  Paper size should be 8½x 11 (not A4).  Please check your finished text to see whether it conforms to this size.


Please follow the editorial guidelines, especially for the notes.  Note that Latin texts in notes are not italicized.  Titles of books are italicized.  Please do not underline titles or underlining in any other parts of the text. Foreign words in the text should be enclosed with quotation marks, e.g. 'droit anglais.' Titles of books, incipits of laws should be Ialicized.


Contributors will receive 25 offprints free of charge.


TEXT of the Article


Quotations. Quotations in the text of more than two or three typewritten lines should be indented, and single spaced. The pertinent footnote should be placed at the last word of the text before the quotation.


The section begins:1

Praemissis itaque nominibus, . . .


Shorter quotations, except Greek, should be put inside single quotation marks. Indirect quotations should not be provided with quotation marks.


Quotation marks. Always use single quotation marks both in the text and the footnotes; only quotations within quotations are placed between double quotation marks. As a rule the closing quotation mark should always come before the punctuation; wherever double and single quotation marks come together, punctuation is placed between the two.

One cannot put it more succinctly than Genesis, ‘Dixitque Deus: “Fiat lux”.’


Single words and short phrases in languages other than English if they are the titles of works will be italicized; if they are not titles they should be put in single quotation marks. Words and phrases that are put between The following abbreviations will not be italicized: cf., col., e.g., etc., fol., i.e., viz. Do not use the following abbre-viations: foll. fo. f. fols. p. pp. op. cit. No spaces between col. fol. etc. and number, e.g. fol.175v. Foreign words put in parentheses should not be Italicized or put between single quotations marks.


Spelling. For German ä, ö, ü, diacritics should be used and not ae, oe, ue.


Annotation. Economy in annotating a paper is desirable. As a rule, there need not be more than one footnote for any one sentence; in most cases references for different parts of a sentence can and should be combined into a single footnote. Authors should keep footnotes as concise as possible and should relegate long discussions to an appendix rather than to a footnote. Cross references to pages of the article are strongly discouraged and should be used only under the most compelling circumstances.




Punctuation and Style. The footnotes should use punctuation marks sparingly. No commas should be placed after periods or parentheses, between Roman and Arabic numerals, between place and year of publication. Abbreviations such as vol., v., p., pp., col., should not be used except when necessary for clarity. The abbreviations l. and ll. for line(s) or liber (libri) should never be used, as they are easily misread as numerals. In references to several consecutive pages (paragraphs, etc) the form 18-27 should be preferred to 18ff. or 18 sqq. Never use a single digit in a reference to several pages, e.g. 25-27, not 25-7, 217-253, not 217-53.  Use small roman numerals (lower case, not small caps) in reference to those pages of a book that are themselves numbered in roman. Give the first name of the author in full. The publisher’s name should not be included in the publication information except for special reasons, as in the case of rare editions when the publisher is important.


Capitalization and Punctuation of Titles. The titles of foreign books and articles will be capitalized according to the usage of the language. In Latin titles, only the first word and proper nouns will be capitalized.  The subtitles of works shall be separated from the main title by a colon in works of all languages. Commas in footnotes should be used sparingly.


Abbreviation of References. For reference to standard editions, commonly known general works on Roman and canon law in the Middle Ages, selected journals, serial publications, and the like, authors should consult the section ‘Abbreviations’ printed each year at the beginning of the Bulletin and on this website at:



Books: (a) Standard form:


Gaines Post, Studies in Medieval Legal Thought: Public Law and the State, 1100-1322 (Princeton 1964).


Frederic W. Maitland, The Constitutional History of England (Cambridge 1908) 234-245


N.B. Use the entire first name of authors since computer catalogues can have long lists of last names with the same initials; do not abbreviate page numbers, e.g. 234-45, rather 234-245; always include subtitles and series titles. Always use Arabic numbers for volume numbers in titles and in references to PL, Mansi, etc.. 


(b) Individual works consisting of two or more volumes:


Willibald M. Plöchl, Geschichte des Kirchenrechts (2nd. ed. Wien 1960) 1.270-272. [Capital arabic  numeral indicates volume cited, separated from page numbers by period.]



(c) Monographs in a series:  Nota bene: Complete titles and complete series titles should be given.


Anders Winroth, The Making of Gratian’s Decretum   (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th Series, 49;  Cambridge 2000) 210.


Friedrich Kempf, Pappstum und Kaisertum bei Innocenz III.: Die geistigen und rechtlichen Grundlagen seiner Thronstreitpolitik (Miscellanea historiae pontificiae 19; Rome 1954) 14-26.


N.B. The title of the series is not italicized.


(d) Serial collections, encyclopedias, and corpora: 

        Mansi 23.509-12.

PL 215.412-13.

MGH Scriptores 12.143.17-21. (or:12.143 lines17-21 for more clarity, not 12.143 ll. 17-21). 

Arabic numerals indicate the volume cited: volume, page(s), and line(s) are separated by periods without insertion of space.]




Ervin Jacobi, ‘Der Prozess im Decretum Gratiani und bei den ältesten Dekretisten’, ZRG Kan. Abt. (1913) 240-241.


Etienne Hugueny, ‘Gratien et la confession’, Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques 6 (1912) 81-88.


Giuseppe Ermini, ‘Giovanni d’Andrea’,  Enciclopedia italiana (1933) 17.225.


Subsequent citations. Should be given with the author’s surname and a short title rather than op. cit.


Jacobi, ‘Prozess im Decretum’ 285.

Kempf, Papsttum und Kaisertum 170.


N.B. There should be no references to the first full reference to the work in the footnotes (i.e. see above n.1).


Ancient and medieval works. Arabic numerals designating book and chapter, paragraph, section, verse, etc., should be separated by periods (without insertion of space); the comma (or, at need, the semicolon) followed by space separates two consecutive references:


Bible: Gen. 2:12, Matt. 3:13, 2 Tim. 3:4-14

Cicero, De officiis 2.7.24; De oratore 1.44.196; 46.201; 2.30.132.

 Pliny, Ep. 2.4, 7, 14.


Gaius, Institutes 3.118, ed. F. de Zulueta (Oxford 1946) p. 188.


St. Augustine, De baptismo 3.17.28, ed. M. Petschenig (CSEL 51.315.12). [If more details are desirable in a first reference: 3.17.28, ed. M. Petschenig (CSEL 51; Vienna 1908) p. 315.12].

 For early-modern editions of ancient and medieval texts, the preferred method of citation is:


Hostiensis, Comm. X 1.43 De arbitris c. 9 Per tuas: `Nota si paganus’. (ed. Venet. 1581 fol. 207ra n.7).


The form of legal citations should comform to the style outlined in the Bulletin for 1955 [Traditio 11 (1955) 438-439] but without putting abbreviations for Digest, Code, etc. in italics.


D.63 c.5, C.25 q.1 c.2; cite Gratian's dicta as C23 q.1 d.p.c.5

3  Comp. 4.2.1 (X 4.2.13)

VI 5.2.1

Dig. (not D.

Cod. 1.2.14  (not C. 1.2.14) Auth. Haec usus (ex Nov. 120.2)

Inst. 1.4.1


Manuscripts. For references to manuscripts, the proper abbreviations are fol. (not plural fols.; not f. or ff.), r, v (not raised), and ra, rb, etc. (for columns). Place, library, and shelfmark should never be italicized. Consult the BMCL abbreviations for abbreviations of libraries and institutions. In most cases it will be sufficient to cite Admont 22 fol. 130v, but there may be reasons, especially in the first reference, to write:


Admont Stiftsbibl. 22 fol.145r

Vat. Reg. lat. 977 fol.50v or BAV Reg. lat. 977 fol.50v

Munich BSB lat. 3879 fol.243ra-244vb (never use Clm)

Colmar BC 509 fol.85va


In the text and footnotes, the abbreviation MS, MSS should not be used (not: ‘there remains a number of MSS to be examined’).