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A canon from the Council of Poitiers in 1079 banning clergy from bearing arms became part of the normative law of the church by the late twelfth century.

Council of Poitiers 1079

1 Comp. 3.1.2 (X 3.1.2): Clerici arma portantes et usurarii excommunicentur (Clerics who bear arms or who are usurers may be excommunicated).

Lawrence G. Duggan, Armsbearing and the Clergy in the History and Canon Law of Western Christianity (Boydell & Brewer, 2013)

Bernardus Parmensis (ca. 1250), Glossa ordinaria to X 3.1.2 s.v. Clerici arma:  "Clerici arma portare non debent, xxiii. questione ultima, Clerici et c. Quicumque (C.23 q.8 c.5 and c.6) sine iusta causa.  Iustam causam intellige si per loca periculosa transitum faciunt tunc possunt portare arma ad terrorem latronum,  licet percutere non debeant (Clerics ought not to bear arms .  .  . without a just reason.  You may understand just reason if they travel through dangerous territories then they may bear arms to strike fear into robbers, although they ought not to strike)"

Hostiensis (ca. 1270) Commentary to X 3.1.2 s.v. Clerici arma:  "Quod intelligas ad impugnandum; nam ex causa arma defensionis possunt portare .  .  . sed et laicis hoc interdictum est, ut Cod. 11.47(46) .  .  . necessitate tamen iminente sufficit .  .  . (Which you should understand to mean "attacking."  For clerics can bear arms for reason of defense .  .  . even lay persons are forbidden to bear arms as in the Codex .  .  . <but> reason of great necessity <they can> .  .  . )


Emanuel Gonzalez Tellez (ca. 1625), Commentaria to X 3.1.2, vol. 3, p.6: "et ipsa naturalis ratio permittat ut a periculis nos defendamus, l. Itaque 4. ff. de iustitia et iure (Dig. 1.1.3), unde ius hoc, ut arma armis repellere liceat, a natura comparatum dicitur, l.1 Vim vi 27 ff. de vi et vi armat (Dig.43.16[15].1.27)  .  .  . Nec obstat dubitandi ratio supra expensa nam a praesenti generali prohibitione necessitatis casus excipiendi sunt ut contra vim tum sibi tum patriae illatam armis sese clerici defendere possint .  .  . Eadem ratione si civitas ab hostibus oppugnatur, clerici arma defensionis causa sumere possunt." (Natural reason permits that we defend ourselves from danger .  .  . consequently the law that it is permitted to repel armed force with armed force is said to be conferred by nature .  .  .  Notwithstanding the reason for doubting this above, in spite of the general prohibition,  cases of necessity must be excepted and clerics may defend themselves and their home land .  .  .  By the same reason if a city is beseiged by enemies clerics can take up arms based on the principle of defense.")