The Creative Canonist:  Clerics Bearing Arms?

Rights of the Poor


Right to Immigrate



Pennington, The History of Rights in Western Thought


On to 1917: Codification


The Greatest Contribution of Canonical Jurisprudence to European Law:  The Institutions and Norms of Procedure, especially the Right of Due Process


Ordo iudiciarius

Accusatorial and Inquisitorial Procedure

Pennington, Due Process, Community, and the Prince in the Evolution of the Ordo iudiciarius

Pennington, Introduction to the Courts

Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law and Church Law 1150-1625. Emory University Studies in Law and Religion. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1997.

The Second Great Contribution to European Jurisprudence:  The Right to Consent

Pennington, Representation in Medieval Canon Law

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud. Misc. 587, fol. 59r
Pope Alexander III and Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa