The Thirteenth-Century Papal Monarchy Under Pope Innocent III

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The Power of the Papacy: Innocent III (1198-1216)

1. Centralization of the Church

Papal Registers, Chancellery, and Roman Curia

"I am placed between God and man, lower than God but higher than man, the judge of all men who can be judged by none." Sermon on his consecration as pope, 1198 "The pope has this authority because he does not exercise the office of man, but of the true God on earth."  Letter to German Bishops (1198)

2. Establishment of Papal States (The Pope as Prince)

            Innocent's Building Program in Rome Papal Monarchy

3. Crusades

Fourth Crusade, 1204 
Albigensian Crusade, 1209

Inquisition

Fifth Crusade called by Innocent at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)

4. Church and State:  Empire and Kingdoms

Pope chooses emperor  (Venerabilem)
Pope regulates royal marriages
Pope judges in disputes between kings  (Novit)
Pope becomes the feudal lord over kings and they become his vassals (Sicily, England, Hungary)
Pope quashes Magna Carta (Etsi Karissimus)

5. Reform of the Church  (Fourth Lateran Council) Canons of the Fourth Lateran Council

6.  Innocent III and the Franciscans and Dominicans

Innocent III and Saint Francis of Assisi (ca. 1182-1226)

Waldes of Lyon ( ca. 1205)

(Waldensians)

Saint Dominic (1171-1221)

Preaches to the Albigensians in Southern France (1206-1208)

 

Saint Francis Finds His Vocation

Saint Francis Preaches to the Birds

Saint Francis Has His Rule Confirmed

The Rule of St Francis

Pope Honorius III's Confirmation of the Franciscan Rule   Latin Text Thomas Celano's Life of St Francis