The Expansion of Europe and Christendom in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

European Exploration turns West

Suleiman II, the Magnificent (1520-1566)

European Expansion based on new technology and on the military strength of the proto-nation state Spirit of 1492
King John III of Portugal, Regimento do Astrolabio e do Quadrante  1484 Ship Design --- Astrolabe and Quadrant --- Cannon
Batholomeu Dias (Diaz) (1450-1500)  Rounded Cape of Good Hope  1487 Vasco de Gama (1469-1539) Sailed to Coast of India 1498
Christopher Colombus Spain
Ferdinand of Aragon (1479-1516)
Isabella of Castile (1474-1504)

The Political Situation in Western Europe on the Eve of the Reformation  

Fall of Constantinople 1453


Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul)

Vienna 1529

St Stephen's Vienna

Map of Ottoman Expansion


Charles V (1519-1556) Hapsburg (Portrait of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V Seated1548 Oil on canvas, 205 x 122 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich)

Click on the painting for another Titian portrait of Charles V

Emperor Charles V was the King of Castile, Aragon, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Spanish possessions of the new world, Emperor of the Romans and king of Germany

King Francis I of France (1515-1547)