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Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

The Political Papacy and its Critics

Charles of Anjou
Kingdom of Sicily, brother of Saint Louis IX, King of France:  King of Angevin Sicily 1265-1285

Kingdom of Sicily (Map)

Papal States in the Thirteenth Century

Pope Gregory IX 1227-1241

Pope Innocent IV 1243-1254

First Council of Lyon 1245 (Link to Map)

Emperor Frederick II 1212-1250

Interregnum 1250-1273

Pope Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon) 1261-1264

Crusade against Manfred (Battle of Benevento 1266)

Pope Clement IV (Gui Faucoi le Gros )1265-1268

Pope Gregory X 1271-1276

Sicilian Vespers 1282

King Peter III of Aragon

Thirteenth-Century Iberian Peninsula

Aragon and Sicily


Angevin (French)

Aragonese (Spanish)

EnnaLombarda2.jpg (56721 bytes)

Enna, Sicily

Hohenstaufen Castle

Pope Martin IV (Simon de Brion)  1281-1285

King Philip III of France leads a crusade with Pope Martin IV's blessing against Peter III of Aragon 1285

Pope Honorius IV 1285-1287

Pope Nicholas IV 1288-1292

Peter Marrone = Pope Celestine V (1294)

Triumph of Death (ca. 1450) Anonymous, Palermo

Click on the Picture for the Entire Fresco


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Benedict Gaetani = Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

Boniface launches crusade against Cardinals James and Peter Colonna  1297

Statues of Pope Boniface VIII

Taxing the French Clergy

Clericis laicos  1296

First Jubilee Year 1300

Unam sanctam, papal bull (1302)

King Philip IV, the Fair, of France 1285-1314

William of Nogaret, jurist and advisor to Philip IV

Anagni September 7, 1303

Fourteenth-Century Italian City States

France in 1300

Avignonese Papacy = "Babylonian Captivity" (1305-1378)

General View of Avignon and the Papal Palace

France in 1300 and Avignon

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Entrance to the Medieval Palace

Ubi papa ibi Roma

Avignon in 1700

Benedict XI 1303-1304

Clement V 1305-1314

John XXII 1316-1334

Benedict XII 1334-1342

Clement VI 1342-1352

Innocent VI 1352-1362

Urban V 1362-1370

Gregory XI 1371-1378


Criticisms of the Papacy and the Clergy

Dante Alighieri, Commedia

Inferno, Canto 19

Dante1403.JPG (1786446 bytes)

Dante Alighieri 1265-1321

Geoffrey Chaucer(ca. 1340-1400)

 Canterbury Tales  

 Summoners Prologue

Franceso Petrarch (1304-1374), Letter to Friend Describing Avignon
Giovanni Boccaccio (ca. 1313-1375)

 Decameron (1352)
First Day, Second Story: Abraham,
Jehannot and the Pope

Jehannot's Views of the Papacy


Papal Throne, Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome

Roman Line

Urban VI (1378-1389)

Boniface IX (1389-1404)

Innocent VII (1404-1406)

Gregory XII (1406-1415)


The Great Schism (1378-1415)

Avignon Line

Clement VII (1378-1394)

Benedict XIII (1394-1423)


Council of Pisa (1409) created a third pope

Alexander V (1409-1410)

John XXIII (1410-1415)

Map showing the religious divisions created by the Schism

The burning of John Hus at the Council of Constance, Chronik der Konstance Koncils, Rosgartenmuseum, Konstanz

John Hus (ca. 1370-1415) Bohemia

John Wyclif (1330-1384) Eucharist: Laymen could receive wine

Clerical exercise of secular power

Emperor Sigismund   Safe Conduct

Council deposes Popes John XXIII, Benedict XIII, and Gregory XII

Haec Sancta Council is superior to the pope. 

Frequens Councils must be held every 10 years (1st 5 years, 2nd 7 years, then every 10 years)

Council of Constance (1415)

Pope Martin V 1417-1431

Councils of Pavia, Siena (1423-1424)

Basel (Conciliar) (1431-1449)

Reunion of Latin and Greek Churches

Ferrara and Florence (Papal) (1438-1447)
Pope Eugenius IV 1431-1447

Council of Basel elects Felix V (Antipope) 1438

Triumph of Papal Monarchy

Topic 9

Hundred Years' War, Battles and Divisions