Saint Peter's at Christmas

The Pope becomes a Prince

Papal Schisms in the Twelfth Century

Fourth Council of Constantinople 869-870

First Lateran Council 1123

Pope Honorius II 1124-1130

Pope Innocent II 1130-1143

Second Lateran Council 1139

Pope Eugenius III (1145-1153)

Pope Hadrian IV (1154-1159)  The only English pope

Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)

Third Lateran Council 1179


Theodoric 1100-1101

Albert 1102

Sylvester IV 1105-1111

Gregory VIII 1118-1121

Celestine II 1124

Anacletus II 1130-1138

Victor IV 1138

Victor IV (sic) 1159-1164

Paschal III 1164-1168

Calixtus III 1168-1178

Innocent III 1179-1180

The Church of San Lorenzo in Miranda

Built into the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Roman Forum

The Tale of Two Archbishops 

Rainald of Dassel and Saint Thomas Becket


More information about twelfth-century politics