Beheading of John the Baptist (Detail), Caravaggio, 1608, Cathedral of Saint John, Valletta

The creation of the new procedure of "inquisitio" raised questions about a procedure in which third parties brought accusations and in which judges began to play a more active role in prosecuting crime.

It changed concept of justice in the procedure and in European courts.

It led to the introduction of torture.  It justified capital punishment.

The jurists gave the "common good"equality with the rights of the human person.