The First Crusade and Expansion of Europe

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Pisa's Conquest of Corsica and Sardinia
Reconquest of Spain
Normans' conquest of England, Sicily, and Southern Italy

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The First Crusade 

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1071 Seljuk Turks Defeat Eastern Roman Emperor at Manzikert

Council of Clermont 1095

Jerusalem: Holy to Jews, Christians, and Moslems

Pope Urban II, Speech at Clermont

Bellum sanctum = Holy War

Crucesignatus = Signed by the Cross

Plenary Indulgence

Peter the Hermit    Jews Rhineland and Trier Raymond of Toulouse
Ademar of Le Puy, Papal Legate Bohemond of Taranto, Prince of Antioch
Capture of Jerusalem 1099

Peter Abelard's Ode to Jerusalem

Bibliography for the Crusades (Select)

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Crusading States and Kingdom of Jerusalem