Select Bibliography- The Papacy and the Crusades


Andrew Cuff says that before you think one thought about the crusades, you should read this essay by Giles Constable, "The Historiography of the Crusades," The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World, ed. Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001) 1-22.  You can also consult the Crusade Encyclopedia online for an introduction.


Andrea, Alfred J. "A Question of Character: Two Views on Innocent III and the Fourth Crusade," Innocenzo III: Urbs et Orbis: Atti del Congresso internazionale: Roma, 9-15 settembre 1998.

Andrea, A.J., and I. Motsiff. "Pope Innocent III and the Diversion of the Fourth Crusade Army to Zara."
Byzantinoslavica 33 (1972).

Andrea, Afred J. "The Date of Reg. 6:102: Pope Innocent III's Letter of Advice to the Crusaders,"
 Medieval and Renaissance Venice (Urbana, Il.: Univ. of Illinois, 1999), pp. 109-123.

Cowdrey, H.E.J. “Pope Gregory VII and the Bearing of Arms.”
 Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honor of Hans Eberhard Mayer. ed. Benjamin Z. Kedar, Jonathan Riley-Smith and Rudolf Hiestand. Aldershot: Variorum, 1997. 

Cowdrey, Herbert E. J.
 Popes, monks, and crusaders. London: Hambledon Press, 1984. 

Cowdrey, H. E. J. "Pope Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade."
 History 55 (1970): 177-88. 

Cowdrey, H. E. J. "Cluny and the First Crusade,"
 Revue Bénédictine 83 (1975) .

Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Iben.
 The Popes and the Baltic Crusades 1147-1254. Brill, 2007.

Hiestand, Rudolf. "The Papacy and the Second Crusade"; In
 The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. eds. Philips, Jonathan, and Martin Hoch. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001. 

Krey, A.C. "Urban's Crusade: Success or Failure?"
 American Historical Review. 53 (1948): 235-50.

Munro, Dana Carleton. “Papal Proclamation of the Crusade.”
 The Crusades: Motives and Achievements. ed. James A. Brundage. Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1964. 7-11.

Munro, Dana C. "The Speech of Urban II at Clermont."
 American Historical Review 11 (1906), 231-40.

Philips, Jonathan. "Papacy empire and the Second Crusade." In
 The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences.
eds. Philips, Jonathan, and Martin Hoch. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Purcell, Maureen.
 Papal Crusading Policy: The Chief Instruments of Papal Crusading Policy and Crusade to the Holy Land from the Final Loss of Jerusalem to the Fall of Acre, 1244-1291. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975.

Robinson, I.S. "Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ."
 History 58 (1973).

Robinson, I.S.
 Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest: The Polemical Literature of the Late Eleventh Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1978. 

Robinson, I.S. "Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085)."
 Journal of Ecclesiastical Studies 36, No. 3 (1985). 

Robinson, I.S. "Church and Papacy."
 The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, c. 350-1450. ed. J. H. Burns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Robinson, I.S.
 The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Roscher, Helmut.
 Papst Innocenz III, und die Kreuzzuge. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969. 

Rousseau, Constance M. . "A Papal Matchmaker: Principle and Pragmatism during Innocent III's Pontificate."
Journal of Medieval History 24:3 (1999): 259-71.

Sayers, Jane.
 Innocent III: Leader of Europe, 1198-1216. London and New York: Longman, 1994.

Schramm. Percy Ernst.
 Kaiser, Konige, und Papste: Gesammelte Aufsatze zur Geschichte des Mittelalters. Vol. 4, pt. 1 Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1970. 

Schein, Sylvia.
 Fideles crucis: the Papacy, the West, and the recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Setton, K. M.
 The Papacy in the Levant, 1204-1571, 4 vols. Philadelphia: 1976-84.

Somerville, Robert. "The Councils of Urban II: Decreta Claromontensia."
 Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum, Supplementum 1 (1972) .

Spence, Richard T.
 Pope Gregory IX and the Crusade. Ph.D Dissertation: Syracuse University, 1978.

Tillman, Helene.
 Pope Innocent III. Translated by Walter Sax. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland, 1980.