|Gratian, De legibus, Distinctiones 1-20||Structure of Gratian
Distinctiones 1-101 (Pars Prima)
Causae 1-36 (Pars Secunda)
De penitentia (C.33 q.3)De consecratione
genus duobus regitur, naturali uidelicet iure et moribus. Ius naturae est,
quod in lege et euangelio continetur, quo quisque iubetur alii facere, quod
sibi uult fieri, et prohibetur alii inferre, quod sibi nolit fieri. Unde
Christus in euangelio: "Omnia quecunque uultis ut faciant uobis homines, et
uos eadem facite illis. Haec est enim lex et prophetae. [Matthew 7:12, cf.
Dictum before chapter 1, Distinctio 1 (D.1 d.a.c.1):
The Human Race is ruled by two things: namely, natural law and long standing custom (mos). Natural law is what is contained in the law and the Gospel. By it, each person is commanded to do to others what he wants done to himself and is prohibited from inflicting on others what he does not want done to himself.
D.1 c.1 Fas et ius
Ratione lex constat (Law is confirmed through reason)
D.1 c.7: Ius naturale: Omnium una libertas
D.4 dictum after c.3:
<Gratianus>. Leges instituuntur, cum promulgantur, firmantur, cum moribus utentium approbantur. Sicut enim moribus utentium in contrarium nonnullae leges hodie abrogatae sunt, ita moribus utentium ipsae leges confirmantur. (Laws are instituted when they are promulgated; they are confirmed when they have been approved by the long standing custom of those who observe them. Some laws have have been abrogated by the long standing custom of those who have acted contrary to them, because laws are confirmed by the long standing custom of those who observe them).
The Canonists reflect upon Ius:
D. 19 and D.20: The Authority of Papal Decretals