Monastery at  Cluny

Founded by William of Aquitaine 909

1046:  Council of Sutri:  Emperor Henry III (1039-1056) deposes three rival popes (Popes Benedict IX, Silvester III and Gregory VI).  Henry nominates Pope Clement II (1046-1049)

Emperor Henry III  nominates St. Leo IX (Bruno of Egisheim) 1049-1054

Pope Leo IX holds church councils in Northern Europe that dealt with simony and clerical marriage; asserts papal primacy

Pope Leo IX raises an army in  1053 and led it against the Normans who had been encroaching upon the lands claimed by the Papal States.  The papal army was soundly defeated; Pope Leo was held prisoner by the Normans for 9 months.  Leo died shortly after his release.

1054 Schism between the Latin and Greek Churches

1059 Election Decree of Pope Nicholas II (1058-1061): Cardinals elect the pope


Pope Gregory VII's Decretal forbidding Investiture 1073

Pope Gregory VII's Decretal against Simony and Clerical Marriage 1074

Collections of Canon Law

Pope Saint Gregory's Dictatus papae