Luther, the Protestant Revolt,  the Catholic Reformation, and the Expansion of Christendom

Martin Luther (1483-1546)  by Lucas Cranach

Lutherhalle, Wittenberg, Germany

Topic 10
Boccaccio, Second Story of First day

Luther visits Rome in 1510

Luther teaches at University of Wittenburg 1513-1519

Dominican John Tetzel, Indulgences

Pope Leo X shared profits with Albert of Brandenburg, archbishop of Madgeburg (24 years old)

95 Theses

 October 31, 1517

Letter to Pope Leo X 1518


Diet of Worms 1521

Sola fide, sola scriptura, sola gratia

Three sacraments: Baptism, pennance, eucharist (communion)

Luther emphasized the individual's conscience in religious matters

Luther marries Catherine Bora in 1525

Results of the Protestant Reformation
    1. Linking of Church and State Power (Erastianism --- Thomas Erastus [1524-1583])

    2. Fragmentation of Ecclesiastical Institutions

    3. Puritanism

    4. Christians choose the religion of their Prince (cuius regio, eius religio)


The Expansion of Europe and Christendom in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) by Hans Holbein

Humanism, the scholarly methodology of the Humanists

Episcopus:  Paul wrote to the bishops and deacons of Philippi.
Rome and the Catholic Reformation  

Pope Leo X 1513-1521 Pope Clement VII 1523-1534
Pope Hadrian VI 1522-1523 Pope Paul III 1534-1549

St. Ignatius of Loyola (Spanish Basque Soldier) (1491-1556)

Jesuits founded in 1540, approved by Pope Paul III; special vow of obedience to the Pope

Roman Inquisition established by Pope Paul III in 1542

Index of Forbidden Books established by Pope Paul IV in 1559

Council of Trent:
                  1st session 1545-1547
                  2nd session 1551-1552
                  3rd session 1562-1563

Results of Catholic Reformation
      1. Papal Monarchy
      2. Scripture and tradition
      3. Mysticism