Topic 6:  The Church in the Twelfth Century and the Rise of the Papacy

The Twelfth Century Renaissance

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Churchmen lead Europe into a Renaissance of Learning

Cathedral Schools: Paris, Laon, and Chartres    Monastic Schools The Decline of Monasteries and Monastic Schools

Trivium: Grammar, Rhetoric, Dialectic


Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy

Beginnings of the Universities: Bologna (Law) and Paris (Theology)

Scriptoria (Scriptorium)

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 Map of Cathedral schools

  Bologna and the Birth of Modern Law and the First University in Europe  (Universitas)

A key element of the intellectual revival in Philosophy, Medicine, and MathematicsThe influence of Arabic culture and learning on Western Europe.

Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in Córdoba and Archbishop Raymond of Toledo (1126-1152): Aristotle's Logical Treatises, Works of Mathematics, and Medicine and Ptolemy of Alexandria's Almagest (83-168 A.D.) is the Latin form of the Arabic name (الكتاب المجسطي, al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i.e. "The Great Book")

Ibn Rushd (Averroës)  1126-1198

Maimonides 1135-1204

Córdoba and Palermo

Paris: Peter Lombard, Sentences

International Education: Textbooks and Language
 Latin Literature: Poetry, the beginning of rhymed verse.

Vernacular Literature:  Arthurian Legends and Poetry

Gratian († 1140)

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 Gratian's Decretum

Doctor utriusque iuris

Pepo (ca. 1075)

Irnerius († 1125)

Justinian’s Corpus iuris civilis

St. Denis, royal abbey, the birthplace of Gothic Architecture The Spread of Universities in Europe 1100 to 1400

The Greatest Teacher of the Twelfth Century

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Peter Abelard, Historia calamitatum (History of My Misfortunes) William of Champeaux (ca. 1070-1122)

 Anselm of Laon († 1117)

Abelard's Sic et Non

Abelard's Philosophy

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (ca. 1090-1153)
Abelard and Heloise. Canon Fulbert of Paris; Heloise, Fulbert's niece Abelard died 1142 at the Abbey of Cluny

Sculpture from the tomb of Johannes of Legnano, a professor of law at Bologna (died 1383) showing law students listening to Johannes lecture in a classroom at the University of Bologna.


Twelfth Century Papacy

Fresco of Pope Innocent III in the Monastery of Sacro Speco in Subiaco ca. 1300

Pope Innocent III